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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 15 | Primulaceae

8. Primula Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 142. 1753.

报春花属 bao chun hua shu

Primula blinii

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs perennial, rarely annual, glabrous or pubescent, often farinose. Leaves simple, forming a rosette. Flowers usually heterostylous with pin (with longer styles) and thrum (with shorter styles) flowers; sometimes homostylous, in umbellate, racemose, subcapitate, or spicate inflorescences on scapes, with bracts; rarely solitary, scapes undeveloped. Calyx campanulate or cylindric, sometimes leaflike, 5-toothed. Corolla tube cylindric, not constricted at throat; limb 5-lobed, spreading or campanulate; lobes 2-cleft, margin entire. Stamens inserted on corolla tube; filaments very short; anthers obtuse. Ovary superior. Capsule globose, ovoid, or cylindric, dehiscing by valves, rarely with an operculum or crumbling; seeds numerous.

Approximately 500 species, mostly indigenous to the N temperate zone, with only a few outliers on the mountainous regions of Africa (Ethiopia), tropical Asia (Java and Sumatra), and South America. About 300 species are native to China.

Many species are imperfectly known, sometimes collected only once. This is reflected occasionally by missing details on pin or thrum morphology, fruiting characteristics, or ecology.

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The 300 species are represented by 24 sections according to C. M. Hu: 1. Sect. Monocarpicae Franchet ex Pax: spp. 1--13. 2. Sect. Obconicolisteri I. B. Balfour: spp. 14--23. 3. Sect. Cortusoides I. B. Balfour: spp. 24--40. 4. Sect. Malvacea I. B. Balfour: spp. 41--47. 5. Sect. Auganthus (Link) Pax ex I. B. Balfour: spp. 48--50. 6. Sect. Pycnoloba I. B. Balfour: sp. 51. 7. Sect. Ranunculoides Chen & C. M. Hu: spp. 52--53. 8. Sect. Primula: sp. 54. 9. Sect. Carolinella (Hemsley) Pax: spp. 55--62. 10. Sect. Bullatae Pax: spp. 63--66. 11. Sect. Petiolares Pax: spp. 67--115. 12. Sect. Proliferae Pax: spp. 116--134. 13. Sect. Amethystina I. B. Balfour: spp. 135--142. 14. Sect. Sikkimensis I. B. Balfour: spp. 143--150. 15. Sect. Crystallophlomis Rupr.: spp. 151--191. 16. Sect. Cordifoliae Pax: spp. 192--196. 17. Sect. Aleuritia Duby: spp. 197--242. Spp. 238--242 are recognized in Europe and North America as Sect. Armerina. 18. Sect. Minutissimae Pax: spp. 243--259. 19. Sect. Souliei I. B. Balfour ex W. W. Smith & Forrest: spp. 260--265. 20. Sect. Dryadifolia I. B. Balfour: spp. 266--268. 21. Sect. Denticulata Watt: spp. 269--274. 22. Sect. Capitatae Pax: spp. 275--276. 23. Sect. Muscarioides I. B. Balfour: spp. 277--289. 24. Sect. Soldanelloides Pax: spp. 290--300.


Key 15

1 Leaf blade pinnately lobulate.   (2)
+ Leaf blade entire or denticulate.   (3)
       
2 (1) Corolla rose to purple; leaf blade lobed to near midvein   151 Primula lungchiensis
+ Corolla white; leaf blade lobed to 1/4   152 Primula lactucoides
       
3 (1) Corolla yellow.   (4)
+ Corolla rose-purple or lilac, rarely white.   (11)
       
4 (3) Corolla lobes linear, 1-2 mm wide   182 Primula tangutica
+ Corolla lobes oblong to suborbicular, 3-6 mm wide.   (5)
       
5 (4) Plants glandular puberulent; leaf blade 2-2.5 cm   174 Primula cerina
+ Plants glabrous; leaf blade much more than 2.5 cm.   (6)
       
6 (5) Leaf blade short attenuate at base, shorter than petiole   186 Primula handeliana
+ Leaf blade long attenuate at base, longer than petiole.   (7)
       
7 (6) Corolla lobes broadly elliptic to suborbicular, 6-8 mm wide.   (8)
+ Corolla lobes oblong, 3-5 mm wide.   (9)
       
8 (7) Scapes with 2 umbels; pedicel puberulent   178 Primula reflexa
+ Scapes with 1 umbel; pedicel glabrous   179 Primula soongii
       
9 (7) Corolla lobes strongly reflexed, lying against tube   183 Primula szechuanica
+ Corolla lobes ± spreading, not lying against tube.   (10)
       
10 (9) Plants efarinose; corolla pale yellow   184 Primula aemula
+ Plants ± farinose; corolla purplish or yellow   181 Primula advena
       
11 (3) Corolla lobes narrowly oblong to linear.   (12)
+ Corolla lobes elliptic to oblong.   (14)
       
12 (11) Corolla lobes linear, 1-2 mm wide   182 Primula tangutica
+ Corolla lobes oblong, 2.5-3 mm wide.   (13)
       
13 (12) Calyx parted to 1/3   180 Primula maximowiczii
+ Calyx parted to middle   181 Primula advena
       
14 (11) Pin flower style or thrum stamens reaching mouth of corolla tube.   (15)
+ Pin flower style or thrum stamens reaching middle of corolla tube, slightly longer than calyx.   (17)
       
15 (14) Leaf blade elliptic to oblong-elliptic, base short attenuate   158 Primula hoi
+ Leaf blade obovate to oblanceolate or spatulate, base long attenuate.   (16)
       
16 (15) Calyx parted to middle or slightly below, lobes oblong-lanceolate, pedicel farinose   156 Primula optata
+ Calyx parted to below middle, lobes lanceolate, pedicel efarinose   157 Primula limbata
       
17 (14) Leaf blade ovate, obtuse to subrounded at base; petiole 2-3 × as long as blade   153 Primula woonyoungiana
+ Leaf blade obovate to spatulate, tapering at base; petiole seldom ca. 2 × as long as leaf blade.   (18)
       
18 (17) Leaf rosette at least 10 cm tall, base with few triangular bud scales; leaves efarinose or nearly so at anthesis   156 Primula optata
+ Leaf rosette 2-8 cm tall, without basal bud scales but with old curling petioles; leaves conspicuously farinose at anthesis.   (19)
       
19 (18) Outer leaves oblong-spatulate to lanceolate, inner leaves narrowly oblanceolate; corolla tube ca. 1.5 × as long as calyx   154 Primula diantha
+ Leaves spatulate to oblong-spatulate or oblanceolate; corolla tube at least 2 × as long as calyx   155 Primula minor

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