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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 15 | Primulaceae

8. Primula Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 142. 1753.

报春花属 bao chun hua shu

Primula orbicularis
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Herbs perennial, rarely annual, glabrous or pubescent, often farinose. Leaves simple, forming a rosette. Flowers usually heterostylous with pin (with longer styles) and thrum (with shorter styles) flowers; sometimes homostylous, in umbellate, racemose, subcapitate, or spicate inflorescences on scapes, with bracts; rarely solitary, scapes undeveloped. Calyx campanulate or cylindric, sometimes leaflike, 5-toothed. Corolla tube cylindric, not constricted at throat; limb 5-lobed, spreading or campanulate; lobes 2-cleft, margin entire. Stamens inserted on corolla tube; filaments very short; anthers obtuse. Ovary superior. Capsule globose, ovoid, or cylindric, dehiscing by valves, rarely with an operculum or crumbling; seeds numerous.

Approximately 500 species, mostly indigenous to the N temperate zone, with only a few outliers on the mountainous regions of Africa (Ethiopia), tropical Asia (Java and Sumatra), and South America. About 300 species are native to China.

Many species are imperfectly known, sometimes collected only once. This is reflected occasionally by missing details on pin or thrum morphology, fruiting characteristics, or ecology.

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The 300 species are represented by 24 sections according to C. M. Hu: 1. Sect. Monocarpicae Franchet ex Pax: spp. 1--13. 2. Sect. Obconicolisteri I. B. Balfour: spp. 14--23. 3. Sect. Cortusoides I. B. Balfour: spp. 24--40. 4. Sect. Malvacea I. B. Balfour: spp. 41--47. 5. Sect. Auganthus (Link) Pax ex I. B. Balfour: spp. 48--50. 6. Sect. Pycnoloba I. B. Balfour: sp. 51. 7. Sect. Ranunculoides Chen & C. M. Hu: spp. 52--53. 8. Sect. Primula: sp. 54. 9. Sect. Carolinella (Hemsley) Pax: spp. 55--62. 10. Sect. Bullatae Pax: spp. 63--66. 11. Sect. Petiolares Pax: spp. 67--115. 12. Sect. Proliferae Pax: spp. 116--134. 13. Sect. Amethystina I. B. Balfour: spp. 135--142. 14. Sect. Sikkimensis I. B. Balfour: spp. 143--150. 15. Sect. Crystallophlomis Rupr.: spp. 151--191. 16. Sect. Cordifoliae Pax: spp. 192--196. 17. Sect. Aleuritia Duby: spp. 197--242. Spp. 238--242 are recognized in Europe and North America as Sect. Armerina. 18. Sect. Minutissimae Pax: spp. 243--259. 19. Sect. Souliei I. B. Balfour ex W. W. Smith & Forrest: spp. 260--265. 20. Sect. Dryadifolia I. B. Balfour: spp. 266--268. 21. Sect. Denticulata Watt: spp. 269--274. 22. Sect. Capitatae Pax: spp. 275--276. 23. Sect. Muscarioides I. B. Balfour: spp. 277--289. 24. Sect. Soldanelloides Pax: spp. 290--300.


Key 17

1 Corolla rose to purple or, if white, flowers heterostylous.   (2)
+ Corolla yellow or orange or, if white, flowers homostylous.   (10)
       
2 (1) Plants farinose at least inside of calyx.   (3)
+ Plants efarinose throughout.   (5)
       
3 (2) Corolla tube gradually widened from base; calyx yellow farinose inside   117 Primula miyabeana
+ Corolla tube cylindric, widened near mouth; calyx farinose on both sides.   (4)
       
4 (3) Leaf blade elliptic to elliptic-oblanceolate; lateral veins nearly at right angles to midvein, corolla eye red or purple   118 Primula pulverulenta
+ Leaf blade narrowly oblong-oblanceolate to obovate- oblanceolate; lateral veins at acute angles to midvein; corolla eye yellow   119 Primula beesiana
       
5 (2) Calyx parted at least to middle, lobes lanceolate.   (6)
+ Calyx parted scarcely to middle, lobes triangular.   (7)
       
6 (5) Calyx 5-6 mm; leaf blade oblanceolate to obovate-elliptic, ± regularly denticulate   120 Primula stenodonta
+ Calyx 10-14 mm; leaf blade oblong to obovate-oblong, erose-denticulate   121 Primula mallophylla
       
7 (5) Corolla dark purple when young, limb 1-1.5 cm wide, lobes 3-4(-5) mm   122 Primula anisodora
+ Corolla red to pale purple, limb usually more than 1.5 cm wide, lobes usually more than 5 mm.   (8)
       
8 (7) Corolla lobes oblong, emarginate, crenate-serrate at apex   117 Primula miyabeana
+ Corolla lobes broadly obovate to suborbicular, emarginate to 2-cleft at apex.   (9)
       
9 (8) Corolla limb 1-1.5 cm wide, lobes ca. 1/2 as long as tube; plants aromatic when live   123 Primula wilsonii
+ Corolla limb 1.8-3 cm wide, lobes slightly shorter than tube; plants not aromatic   124 Primula poissonii
       
10 (1) Scapes and inflorescences farinose.   (11)
+ Plants completely efarinose.   (15)
       
11 (10) Calyx lobes lanceolate   125 Primula bulleyana
+ Calyx lobes triangular.   (12)
       
12 (11) Corolla yellow; flowers heterostylous.   (13)
+ Corolla orange; flowers homostylous or heterostylous.   (14)
       
13 (12) Corolla tube 0.8-1.1 cm, ca. 2 × as long as calyx, limb 1-1.5 cm wide   126 Primula smithiana
+ Corolla tube 1.2-1.8 cm, ca. 3 × as long as calyx, limb ca. 2.5 cm wide   127 Primula helodoxa
       
14 (12) Corolla orange or tinged with red; leaf blade subrounded to broadly cuneate at base; petiole distinct   128 Primula cockburniana
+ Corolla pale orange; leaf blade cuneate-attenuate at base; petiole usually indistinct   129 Primula chungensis
       
15 (10) Calyx tubular-campanulate, parted below middle, lobes lanceolate   130 Primula aurantiaca
+ Calyx campanulate, parted scarcely to middle, lobes triangular.   (16)
       
16 (15) Flowers homostylous; corolla limb 0.6-1(-1.2) cm wide   131 Primula prenantha
+ Flowers heterostylous; corolla limb usually more than 1.2 cm wide.   (17)
       
17 (16) Scapes with 3 or 4 superimposed umbels; corolla tube cylindric, enlarged near mouth   132 Primula chrysochlora
+ Scapes with 1-3 superimposed umbels; corolla tube gradually amplified upward from base.   (18)
       
18 (17) Leaf blade 3-5 cm, margin densely fine denticulate; pin flower style or thrum flower stamens slightly exceeding middle of corolla tube   133 Primula melanodonta
+ Leaf blade 6-12 cm, margin denticulate; pin flower style or thrum flower stamens exserted from corolla tube   134 Primula serratifolia

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