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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 17 | Lamiaceae

25. Prunella Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 600. 1753.

夏枯草属 xia ku cao shu

Prunella vulgaris

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs perennial. Leaves pinnatifid to subentire. Verticillasters 6-flowered, in terminal ovoid or ovoid-globose spikes; bracts broad, membranous, margin ciliate, overlapping; bracteoles minute or absent. Pedicel very short or absent. Calyx tubular-campanulate, ± flattened dorsiventrally, irregularly 10-veined, netted between veins, 2-lipped, base hairy, throat glabrous; upper lip flat, truncate, shortly 3-toothed; lower lip 2-cleft to 1/2 of lip, teeth lanceolate, mouth closed in fruit. Corolla tube gradually dilated on 1 side, exserted, throat slightly constricted, scaly annulate inside, limb 2-lipped; upper lip straight, galeate, margin entire; lower lip 3-lobed, middle lobe largest, concave, denticulate; lateral lobes oblong, reflexed. Stamens 4, anterior 2 longer, ascending to underside of upper lip, parallel, free; filament apex dentate; anther cells 2, divaricate. Ovary glabrous. Style glabrous, apex equally 2-cleft, lobes subulate. Nutlets brown, subglobose, ovoid to oblong, glabrous, smooth or tuberculate, apex rounded.

About seven broadly defined species (15 by some authors): Africa, Asia, Europe, North America; four species (one cultivated) in China.

1 Corolla tube upwardly curved, 2-2.7 cm, ca. 3 × as long as calyx; spike conspicuously long pedunculate; sterile tooth of anterior filaments short, tubercular; adaxial calyx teeth conspicuous; nutlets subglobose, slightly tuberculate, conspicuously grooved on margin and back   4 Prunella grandiflora
+ Corolla with straight tube, less than 2 cm, less than 2 × as long as calyx; spike short pedunculate to sessile; sterile tooth of anterior filaments longer than anther; adaxial calyx teeth inconspicuous; nutlets ovoid to oblong, smooth.   (2)
2 (1) Plants conspicuously hispid throughout; corolla blue-purple, upper lip with a conspicuous hispid belt on back   3 Prunella hispida
+ Plants sparsely strigose or subglabrous throughout; corolla purple, red-purple, reddish, to white, upper lip glabrous or subglabrous on back.   (3)
3 (2) Plants slender; corolla slightly exserted, ca. 1.3 cm   1 Prunella vulgaris
+ Plants robust; corolla much exserted, 1.8-2.1 cm   2 Prunella asiatica

Lower Taxa


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