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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 5 | Polygonaceae

12. Rumex Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 333. 1753.

酸模属 suan mo shu

Li Anjen (李安仁 Li An-ren); Alisa E. Grabovskaya-Borodina, Sergei L. Mosyakin

Herbs perennial or less commonly annual, rarely shrubs, rarely dioecious. Roots usually stout (taproots), or sometimes plants rhizomatous. Stems erect, rarely ascending to prostrate, branched, not hollow or sulcate. Leaves simple, often dimorphic, fugacious or persisting, basal and cauline, alternate, margin entire or undulate; ocrea tubular, membranous, margin entire. Inflorescence usually terminal, sometimes terminal and axillary, racemose or paniculate. Pedicel articulate (the functional pedicel consists of the true pedicel and, below the joint, the narrowed united basal parts of the outer tepals (pseudopedicel)). Flowers bisexual or unisexual (unisexual in dioecious, and rarely in polygamo-monoecious plants). Perianth persistent, tepals 6, becoming enlarged and often hardened in fruit; valve (fruiting inner tepal) margin entire, erose, denticulate, or variously dentate, midvein often transformed into tubercles (tuberculate callosities). Stamens 6. Styles 3, elongate; stigmas penicillate. Achenes trigonous, elliptic to ovate.

About 200 species: widely distributed in N and S temperate zones; 27 species (one endemic) in China.

Rumex s.l. is sometimes subdivided into at least three segregate genera: Rumex s.str., Acetosa Miller, and Acetosella (Meisner) Fourreau, here recognized as subgenera. The generic status of these segregate genera, however, has not been generally accepted by most taxonomists. In some cases intermediate forms exist between them, especially between Acetosa and Acetosella, and they are evidently more closely related to each other than to any outside genus. This favors the retention of Rumex in the traditional broad sense, which is also convenient from the viewpoint of nomenclatural stability.

1 Shrubs flowers polygamous.   2 R. hastatus
+ Herbs; flowers unisexual or bisexual.   (2)
2 (1) Annual herb.   (3)
+ Perennial herb.   (9)
3 (2) Only 1 valve with tubercles.   25 R. marschallianus
+ All valves with tubercles.   (4)
4 (3) Margin of valves entire.   27 R. microcarpus
+ Margin of valves long dentate, dentate, or denticulate.   (5)
5 (4) Only 1 valve with 2 pairs of teeth, others denticulate; teeth 3.5-4 mm, apex usually slightly curved.   26 R. amurensis
+ All valves dentate or denticulate; teeth 2-4 mm, apically straight.   (6)
6 (5) Stem branched above; valves narrowly triangular, margin long dentate.   (7)
+ Stem branched from base; valves triangular, margin dentate or denticulate.   (8)
7 (6) Margin of valves with 1 pair of teeth 3-4 mm.   22 R. trisetifer
+ Margin of valves with ca. 3 pairs of teeth 2.5-3 mm.   23 R. maritimus
8 (6) Pedicels articulate below middle; valves 4-5 mm, apex acute, margin dentate, teeth 2-3 mm, rather stout.   21 R. dentatus
+ Pedicels articulate at base; valves 2-2.5 mm, apex narrowly acute, margin denticulate, teeth 1-1.5 mm, bristle-like.   24 R. similans
9 (2) Flowers unisexual and plants dioecious; basal leaves hastate or sagittate.   (10)
+ Flowers bisexual; basal leaves neither hastate nor sagittate.   (12)
10 (9) Basal or lower stem leaves hastate; rhizomes horizontal; valves shorter than or equaling achenes, without tubercles; pedicel articulate near base of tepals.   1 R. acetosella
+ Basal or lower stem leaves sagittate; without rhizomes or shortly rhizomatous; valves distinctly longer than achenes, with small tubercles; pedicel articulate near middle.   (11)
11 (10) Root thin, horizontal or oblique; primary branches of inflorescence usually simple or nearly so.   3 R. acetosa
+ Taproot thick, normally vertical or oblique; primary branches of inflorescence repeatedly branched.   4 R. thyrsiflorus
12 (9) Valves without tubercles.   (13)
+ All or 1 or 2 valves with tubercles.   (19)
13 (12) Basal leaves triangular-ovate, base deeply cordate, apex obtuse.   11 R. gmelinii
+ Basal leaves not as above.   (14)
14 (13) Articulation of pedicels in fruit conspicuous.   (15)
+ Articulation of pedicels in fruit inconspicuous.   (16)
15 (14) Basal leaves lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate 1.5-4 cm wide; valves nearly orbicular or orbicular-cordate, 3.5-4.5 mm.   7 R. pseudonatronatus
+ Basal leaves oblong-lanceolate or broadly lanceolate, 5-10 cm wide; valves orbicular-reniform or orbicular-cordate, 5-6 mm.   5 R. longifolius
16 (14) Basal leaves oblong-ovate or ovate, base cordate.   (17)
+ Basal leaves oblong-lanceolate or elliptic, base cuneate.   (18)
17 (16) Valves ovate, margin nearly entire, base subtruncate.   8 R. aquaticus
+ Valves nearly orbicular or orbicular-ovate, margin erose or inconspicuously denticulate, base deeply cordate.   9 R. popovii
18 (16) Basal leaves oblong-lanceolate; valves orbicular-cordate; rachis slightly zigzagged.   6 R. angulatus
+ Basal leaves elliptic; valves triangular-cordate; rachis erect.   10 R. yungningensis
19 (12) Valve entire to indistinctly erose at margin.   (20)
+ Valves erose, denticulate, or dentate at margin.   (22)
20 (19) Basal leaves lanceolate or nearly lanceolate, 2-5 cm wide, margin crisped or strongly undulate, base cuneate; valves broadly ovate to ovate-triangular, base nearly truncate.   14 R. crispus
+ Basal leaves oblong, oblong-lanceolate, or broadly ovate, 5-10 cm wide, base rounded to nearly cordate, margin undulate; valves broadly cordate, base deeply cordate.   (21)
21 (20) Basal leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate.   12 R. patientia
+ Basal leaves broadly ovate.   13 R. thianschanicus
22 (19) Valves 1 or 2 or all with tubercles, margin denticulate.   (23)
+ All valves with tubercles, margin denticulate.   (24)
23 (22) Valves narrowly triangular-ovate; teeth 0.8-1.5 mm, apex straight.   18 R. obtusifolius
+ Valves broadly ovate; teeth 1.5-3 mm, apex hooked.   20 R. nepalensis
24 (22) Basal leaves deeply cordate-triangular, abaxially papillate, apex rounded.   15 R. confertus
+ Basal leaves not as above.   (25)
25 (24) Basal leaves lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate, 1.5-4 cm wide, base cuneate; valves triangular, base truncate.   17 R. stenophyllus
+ Basal leaves oblong or lanceolate-oblong, 3-10 cm wide, base rounded, cordate, or broadly cuneate; valves broadly cordate or triangular-cordate, base cordate or nearly cordate.   (26)
26 (25) Valves broadly cordate, apex acuminate, base cordate, margin irregularly denticulate; denticles 0.3-0.5 mm.   16 R. japonicus
+ Valves triangular-cordate, apex acute, base subcordate, margin denticulate; denticles 1-1.5 mm.   19 R. chalepensis

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