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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 14 | Apiaceae

4. Sanicula Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 235. 1753.

变豆菜属 bian dou cai shu

She Menglan (佘孟兰 Sheh Meng-lan); Loy R. Phillippe

Herbs biennial or perennial. Stem erect, ascending or rarely decumbent, glabrous (Chinese species). Leaves petiolate, sheaths generally membranous, or subsessile; blade orbicular, round-cordate or cordate-pentagonal, palmately 3–5-parted and often lobed, margin serrate or doubly setose-serrate. Umbels simple or compound; peduncles racemous, cymous or corymbose-branched; bracts foliaceous, usually serrate; bracteoles small, entire, rarely lobed; umbellules with both sessile or subsessile, bisexual flowers and pedicellate, staminate flowers. Calyx teeth prominent, connate and persistent. Petals white, greenish white, pale yellow, purple or pale blue, spatulate or obovate with a narrowly inflexed apex. Stylopodium absent or discoid-flat; styles shorter than or exceeding the calyx teeth, recurved. Fruit long-ellipsoid or subglobose, densely covered with uncinate or straight bristles, or tubercles; ribs inconspicuous or slightly prominent; vittae distinct or obscure, irregularly arranged on the dorsal and lateral surfaces, usually 3 on commissure. Seed-face concave or sulcate. Carpophore absent.

About 40 species: predominately in temperate regions, some species in subtropical regions; 17 species (11 endemic) in China.

1 Stem and inflorescence unbranched; umbels terminal; staminate flowers 9–20 per umbellule.   (2)
+ Stem and inflorescence branched; umbels terminal and lateral; staminate flowers 2–8 per umbellule.   (4)
2 (1) Leaf blade usually shallowly 3–5-parted, rarely deeply divided; bracts shorter than the umbel; fruit covered with tubercles and scales, never with spines or bristles.   3 Sanicula hacquetioides
+ Leaf blade palmately 3-parted; bracts longer than or equaling the umbel; fruit covered with bristles or tubercles.   (3)
3 (2) Leaf blade sharply serrate, teeth spinulose; central rays 5–15 cm; fruit with bristles.   1 Sanicula rubriflora
+ Leaf blade finely serrate, teeth not spinulose; central rays 0.5–3.5 cm; fruit with tubercles or spinules.   2 Sanicula tuberculata
4 (1) Fertile flowers (1–)2–5 per umbellule; fruit densely covered with uncinate bristles or tubercles.   (5)
+ Fertile flowers 1 per umbellule (1–3 in S. caerulescens); fruit with straight bristles, spines or scales.   (10)
5 (4) Inflorescence short, branches few, 1–4, to 1.5 cm.   (6)
+ Inflorescence elongate, branches numerous, more than 1.5 cm.   (7)
6 (5) Staminate flowers 5–7 per umbellule; fertile flowers 1 or 2.   5 Sanicula serrata
+ Staminate flowers 2 or 3 per umbellule; fertile flowers 2 or 3.   11 Sanicula rugulosa
7 (5) Leaf blade deeply divided to 2/3–4/5, bases of central and lateral segments connected.   12 Sanicula astrantiifolia
+ Leaf blade 3–5-parted, bases of central and lateral segments separate or nearly so.   (8)
8 (7) Rays very short, ca. 5 mm.   13 Sanicula elata
+ Rays rather long, 5–20 mm.   (9)
9 (8) Calyx teeth linear, ca. 1.2 × 0.5 mm; styles equaling (rarely exceeding) calyx teeth, slightly recurved.   14 Sanicula chinensis
+ Calyx teeth ovate, ca. 0.5 × 0.3 mm; styles 2–3-times longer than the calyx teeth, recurved.   15 Sanicula giraldii
10 (4) Leaf blade 3-parted, segments entire.   (11)
+ Leaf blade palmately 3–5-parted, segments usually 2–3-lobed.   (12)
11 (10) Plants 20–50 cm high; stem erect; leaves more than 5 cm wide; peduncles elongate, cymose-branched.   16 Sanicula pengshuiensis
+ Plants to 25 cm high; stem decumbent; leaves less than 5 cm wide; peduncles short, subracemose.   17 Sanicula oviformis
12 (10) Inflorescence subracemose; lateral umbels without peduncles, in fascicles.   7 Sanicula caerulescens
+ Inflorescence paniculate or subcorymbose; lateral umbels with distinct peduncles.   (13)
13 (12) Leaves small, less than 2 × 3 cm; fruit furrows smooth, ribs bearing spiny crests.   8 Sanicula petagnioides
+ Leaves large, more than 2 × 3.5 cm; fruit densely covered with spines, scales or tubercles.   (14)
14 (13) Inflorescence branches very slender, elongate; bracts ca. 0.5 mm; calyx teeth ca. 0.3 mm.   6 Sanicula elongata
+ Inflorescence branches stout, not elongate; bracts 1.5–3 mm; calyx teeth 0.6–1 mm.   (15)
15 (14) Calyx teeth ovate, ca. 0.6 mm; fruit densely covered with scales and tubercles.   4 Sanicula tienmuensis
+ Calyx teeth linear or narrowly linear, 0.5–1 mm; fruit densely covered with spines or erose lamellae.   (16)
16 (15) Lateral segments of leaves oblique-ovate, shallowly 2-lobed or serrate-lobed; styles ca. 1.5 mm.   9 Sanicula lamelligera
+ Lateral segments of leaves oblique-obovate, deeply divided to base; styles 3.5–4 mm.   10 Sanicula orthacantha

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