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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 11 | Euphorbiaceae

11. Sauropus Blume, Bijdr. 595. 1826.

守宫木属 shou gong mu shu

Authors: Bingtao Li & Michael G. Gilbert

Aalius Rumphius ex Kuntze; Breyniopsis Beille; Ceratogynum Wight; Diplomorpha Griffith (1854), not Meisner (1841); Synostemon F. Mueller.

Erect shrubs, rarely herbs or climbers, monoecious or dioecious; indumentum of simple or gland-tipped hairs, often absent. Leaves alternate; stipules small, paired, inserted at bilateral base of petiole; leaf blade simple, entire, pinnately veined or rarely obscurely 3-veined from base, petiolate. Flowers smaller, apetalous. Male flowers axillary or cauliflorous, clustered or solitary, rarely in racemelike thyrses or short cymes; pedicels usually bracteolate at base; calyx discoid, cup-shaped, or turbinate, entire or 6-lobed, lobes obscurely biseriate, imbricate, erect, or spreading, margins slightly thick, with a whorl of scalelike adaxial lobes at bases of calyx lobes, rarely absent; petals absent; stamens 3, opposite outer sepals; filaments usually connate into a short cylinder; anthers free, bilocular, thecae 2, extrorse, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode absent. Female flowers axillary, solitary or paired or with males, rarely inserted at base of male inflorescence; calyx usually 6-parted; sepals biseriate, imbricate, sometimes thickened at fruiting; disk absent; ovary ovoid or depressed globose, truncate or retuse at apex, 3-locular; ovules 2 per locule; styles 3, free or connate at base, much divergent, 2-branched at apex, arms recurved. Fruit a capsule, depressed or ovoid, breaking into 3 2-valved cocci when mature. Seeds not carunculate; endosperm fleshy; cotyledon flattened and broad.

About 56 species: Mascarenes, India, and Sri Lanka to Indo-Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, and Australia; 15 species (four endemic, one introduced) in China.

The dividing line between Sauropus and the following genus, Breynia, is for the most part rather clear-cut but there are a few species that seem to mix characters of the two genera.

1 Creeping or obliquely ascending herbs; sepals with adaxial gland-pits, male sepal margins distally irregularly crenate; stipules awned.   1 S. bacciformis
+ Erect shrubs; sepals without gland-pits, male sepal margins entire or shallowly undulate; stipules without awns   (2)
2 (1) Leaf blade 3-veined   (3)
+ Leaf blade pinnately veined   (4)
3 (2) Male inflorescence a raceme; calyx 6-fid to middle, lobes ovate-triangular; female sepals obovate.   2 S. trinervius
+ Male inflorescence an axillary cluster; calyx entire, margins undulate; female sepals broadly ovate.   3 S. repandus
4 (2) Inflorescence with distinct main axis, cauliflorous, arising from base or lower part of stem or main branches at ground level; anther connectives forming triangular head with anthers at angles   (5)
+ Inflorescence without distinct axis, in upper axils of branches; anther connectives not enlarged   (6)
5 (4) Branches, petioles, and base of leaf blade abaxially pubescent when young; leaves pendent, usually crowded toward stem apex; leaf blade usually spatulate, apex rounded; sepals red or purple.   4 S. spatulifolius
+ Branches, leaf blade abaxially, and petioles glabrous; leaves not pendent, never clustered at stem apex; leaf blade oblong-elliptic, ovate-lanceolate, or oblanceolate, apex acuminate or shortly so; sepals yellow-green with red streaks.   5 S. bonii
6 (4) Leaf blade leathery, reticulate veins prominent.   6 S. reticulatus
+ Leaf blade membranous to papery, reticulate veins ± obscure   (7)
7 (6) Female pedicels 2-6 cm, to 13 cm in fruit.   7 S. macranthus
+ Female pedicels 0.1-1.5 cm   (8)
8 (7) Lateral veins 10-12 pairs, base of midrib on both surfaces and of leaf blade margin equally densely stiffly papillate.   8 S. yanhuianus
+ Lateral veins 4-8 pairs, midrib and leaf blade margin more sparsely papillate   (9)
9 (8) Leaf blade papery or thickly papery   (10)
+ Leaf blade membranous or thinly papery   (12)
10 (9) Leaf apex rounded, mucronulate.   11 S. similis
+ Leaf apex acuminate or caudate-acuminate   (11)
11 (10) Leaf apex acuminate, lateral veins slightly raised on both surfaces; male sepals broadly or obliquely ovate; female sepals ovate.   9 S. pierrei
+ Leaf apex caudate-acuminate, lateral veins adaxially flattened, elevated abaxially; male sepals oblong-lanceolate; female sepals spatulate.   10 S. tsiangii
12 (9) Branchlets 4-sided; leaf blade 0.2-2 × 0.2-1.2 cm, apex obtuse, rounded, truncate, or retuse, lateral veins obliquely ascendant; male calyx deeply 6-partite   (13)
+ Branchlets obscurely angular when young, terete with age; leaf blade 2-13 × 1-3.5 cm, apex usually acuminate, rarely acute, lateral veins curved-ascendant; male calyx shallowly 6-fid   (14)
13 (12) Branches glabrous; leaf blade apex rounded, not mucronulate, base rounded or broadly cuneate, lateral veins slender.   12 S. quadrangularis
+ Branches pubescent; leaf blade apex rounded, truncate, or retuse, mucronulate, base shallowly cordate, truncate, or rounded, lateral veins more robust, forked at apex, reticulate nerves prominent.   13 S. delavayi
14 (12) Branchlets and veins of young leaves puberulent; female sepals ovate or elliptic; leaf blade glaucous; capsules obovoid to ovoid.   14 S. garrettii
+ Branchlets and veins of leaves glabrous; female sepals obovate; leaf blade yellowish green; capsules depressed globose or globose.   15 S. androgynus

  • List of lower taxa


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