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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 8 | Saxifragaceae

10. Saxifraga Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 398. 1753.

虎耳草属 hu er cao shu

Pan Jintang ; Richard Gornall, Hideaki Ohba

Saxifraga wardii

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs perennial, rarely annual or biennial. Stem cespitose or simple. Leaves both basal and cauline, petiolate or not; leaf blade simple, entire, margin dentate or lobate; cauline leaves usually alternate, rarely opposite. Inflorescence a solitary flower or few- to many-flowered cyme, bracteate. Flowers usually bisexual, sometimes unisexual, actinomorphic, rarely zygomorphic; receptacle cyathiform or saucer-shaped. Sepals (4 or)5(or 7 or 8). Petals (4 or)5, yellow, orange, white, or red to purple, callose or not, distinctly veined, margin usually entire. Stamens (8 or)10; filaments subulate or clavate. Carpels 2, usually connate at least in placental region; ovary superior to inferior, usually 2-loculed; placentation usually axile; ovules many; integuments 1 or 2; nectary disc sometimes well developed, annular or semiannular. Fruit a 2-valved capsule. Seeds many.

About 450 species: Asia, Europe, North America, South America (Andes), mainly in alpine areas; 216 species (139 endemic) in China.

Two of the present authors (Gornall and Ohba) prefer to segregate Micranthes from Saxifraga on the basis of certain morphological differences (Webb & Gornall, Saxifrages of Europe, 1987) and data from DNA gene sequences (Soltis et al., Amer. J. Bot. 83: 371-382. 1996; and pers. comm.). However, for the purposes of this floristic treatment, Micranthes is treated as S. sect. Micranthes.

1 Flowering stem leafless; all leaves arranged in a compact, basal rosette, containing crystals; stamen filaments clavate or linear to subulate.   (2)
+ Flowering stem leafy; leaves distributed along stem, sometimes aggregated toward base, or sometimes forming columnar rosettes, lacking crystals; stamen filaments linear to subulate.   (3)
2 (1) Flowers actinomorphic; seed surface usually longitudinally ribbed, ribs ribbonlike or pectinate; carpel placentas united for less than 1/2 their length   1 S. sect. Micranthes
+ Flowers zygomorphic; seed surface not ribbed; carpel placentas united for more than 1/2 their length   2 S. sect. Irregulares
3 (1) Rhizomes with bulbils; basal leaves petiolate   5 S. sect. Mesogyne
+ Rhizomes without bulbils; basal leaves petiolate or sessile.   (4)
4 (3) Leaves with chalk glands (calcium-secreting pores), bearing deposits of chalk   6 S. sect. Porphyrion
+ Leaves without chalk glands.   (5)
5 (4) Leaves lobed; flower solitary, sessile; petals white; ovary inferior or subinferior   7 S. sect. Saxifraga
+ Leaves usually entire; flowers 1 to several; petals usually yellow; ovary superior to semi-inferior.   (6)
6 (5) Leaf surfaces shiny, glabrous; petals white or cream; sepals erect   3 S. sect. Trachyphyllum
+ Character combination not as above   4 S. sect. Ciliatae

  • List of lower taxa


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