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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 19 | Acanthaceae

7. Strobilanthes Blume, Bijdr. 781, 796. 1826.

马蓝属 ma lan shu

Authors: Jia-qi Hu & John R. I. Wood

Adenacanthus Nees; Aechmanthera Nees; Apolepsis (Blume) Haasskarl; Baphicacanthus Bremekamp; Championella Bremekamp; Diflugossa Bremekamp; Goldfussia Nees; Gutzlaffia Hance; Hemigraphis Nees; Hymenochlaena Bremekamp; Lepidagathis sect. Apolepsis Blume; Parachampionella Bremekamp; Paragutzlaffia H. P. Tsui; Perilepta Bremekamp; Pseudaechmanthera Bremekamp; Pseudostenosiphonium Lindau; Pseudostonium Kuntze; Pteracanthus (Nees) Bremekamp; Pteroptychia Bremekamp; Pyrrothrix Bremekamp; Semnostachya Bremekamp; Sericocalyx Bremekamp; Strobilanthes subg. Pteracanthus Nees; S. subg. Sympagis Nees; Sympagis (Nees) Bremekamp; Tarphochlamys Bremekamp; Tetraglochidium Bremekamp; Tetragoga Bremekamp.

Herbs, subshrubs, shrubs, [or small trees], isophyllous or weakly to strongly anisophyllous, woody species commonly pliestesial (living for several years then dying after flowering and fruiting). Stems and branches usually 4-angled, often sulcate, basally becoming woody and hollow with age. Leaves opposite, petiolate or sessile; leaf blade adaxially usually with prominent linear cystoliths and sometimes also abaxially, margin variously dentate, serrate, crenate, undulate, or entire. Inflorescences axillary and/or terminal, bracteate heads, headlike clusters, spikes (sometimes distinctly secund), or less commonly of pedicellate flowers forming an open panicle; sterile bracts usually resembling reduced leaves and often present in compound inflorescences; floral bracts usually different from leaves, persistent or caducous as flowers open, very variable in size and shape, sometimes of two types with basal sterile bracts (outermost bracts in a capitate inflorescence) differing from inner or apical fertile ones; bracteoles 2 per pedicel, usually small, sometimes absent. Calyx usually 5-lobed to base, commonly accrescent in fruit; lobes equal or with middle one distinctly longer than others, sometimes partially fused to form a bipartite or tripartite calyx. Corolla nearly always bluish, rarely white, yellow, or pink, tubular or funnel-shaped, inside glabrous apart from trichomes retaining style except in Strobilanthes parvifolia, S. oresbia, and related species; tube either gradually widened from base or narrowly cylindric and then abruptly widened, campanulate or gibbous; limb 5-lobed; lobes usually ovate, equal or subequal, spreading, contorted in bud. Stamens usually 4 and didynamous (rarely 2, 2 fertile with 2 staminodes, or 4 fertile with a central staminode), basally monadelphous; usually 2 filaments distinctly longer than other 2; anthers included or exserted, 2-thecous; thecae oblong or subspherical, parallel, erect or incurved, glabrous, basally muticous, rarely with connective extended to a mucronate tip; pollen spherical or ellipsoid, echinulate and/or variously ribbed, usually tricolporate. Ovary oblong to obovoid, 2-locular, with 2(-8) ovules per locule; style filiform, long, slender, simple, sometimes persistent after corolla falls, retained in place by trichomes on one side of corolla tube; stigma 2-cleft with one branch longer. Capsule characteristically oblong to narrowly obovoid but sometimes fusiform to narrowly ellipsoid, (2-)4(-16)-seeded; retinacula strong, curved. Seeds usually ovate or orbicular in outline and lenticular by being flattened, usually pubescent with appressed mucilaginous trichomes which become spreading when wetted, trichomes caducous in a very few species with seed glabrescent; areola usually very small but occasionally extending as a glabrous area over much of seed surface.

About 400 species: tropical Asia; 128 species (57 endemic) in China.

Note on indumentum: in many species the young inflorescence, even when a few capsules are present, is glabrous or nearly so. As the inflorescence matures, sessile glands become stipitate and older inflorescences become gland-tipped pilose, a process parallel to the development of glands and trichomes as the ovary matures into the capsule. The calyx is also accrescent in many species and the apex appears to continue growing, so calyx lobes, which are linear-oblong at anthesis, may become subspatulate in fruit. There is also a tendency for the corolla indumentum to fall as the corolla opens. Corolla indumentum is most easily observed on buds.

Note on pollen: fig. 1 and fig. 2 show 18 pollen types found in Chinese Strobilanthes. It should be noted that the pollen of some 20% of Chinese species is unknown and the types shown here could be construed as an oversimplification. However, the images do show the range of variation found in the genus. Two important caveats should be taken into account. Many publications illustrating Strobilanthes pollen from China are marred by the use of misidentified material. This is the explanation for cases where a different pollen type is given to that in a published source. A second problem relates to the degree of infraspecific variation in pollen morphology. This is largely unstudied but it is known that some of the more widespread and variable species are somewhat diverse in their pollen morphology although all plants sampled have pollen of one general type. Species known to have somewhat variable pollen include S. atropurpurea, S. echinata, S. speciosa, and S. tomentosa.

Attempts to divide Strobilanthes (Strobilanthinae sensu Bremekamp) into segregate genera have proved unsatisfactory largely because the level of homoplasy displayed by morphological characters has to date rendered subdivision impossible. Molecular studies have not yet greatly clarified the situation because of insufficient sampling, and this too is likely to prove problematic because many species are known only from the type collection or from material inadequate for molecular study. Clusters of related species are clearly discernible, but insufficient information is currently available to produce a satisfactory infrageneric classification. Species in the following account are grouped with morphologically similar and presumably related species, but the linear sequence and lack of adequate data implies that the order of species is at least partially arbitrary.

Strobilanthes lactucifolia H. Léveillé is not treated in the present account because no material has been traced. It is probably not a species of Strobilanthes. Strobilanthes straminea W. W. Smith (Goldfussia straminea (W. W. Smith) C. Y. Wu & C. C. Hu) from N Myanmar, included in FRPS (70: 169. 2002), is excluded from the present account because no Chinese specimen can be traced. Strobilanthes deutziifolia H. Léveillé is Abelia macrotera (Graebner & Buchwald) Rehder in the Linnaeaceae (see p. 645). Strobilanthes gentiliana H. Léveillé is Sesamum indicum Linnaeus in the Pedaliaceae (see Fl. China 18: 226. 1998). Strobilanthes hypericifolia H. Léveillé is Abelia uniflora R. Brown in the Linnaeaceae (see p. 645).

1 Low herbs, sometimes trailing, always isophyllous; corolla less than 2.5 cm and often less than 2 cm, not obviously curved   (2)
+ Herbs or subshrubs, never trailing, usually greater than 50 cm tall, anisophyllous or isophyllous; corolla greater than 2 cm, often strongly curved   (11)
2 (1) Inflorescences of solitary flowers in leaf axils   (3)
+ Inflorescences of terminal or sometimes axillary heads or spikes   (5)
3 (2) Calyx 2-lipped, upper 3 calyx lobes partially fused.   43 S. rankanensis
+ Calyx not 2-lipped, subequally 5-lobed to base   (4)
4 (3) Leaf blade oblong to lanceolate, 7 mm wide or less; capsule glabrous.   7 S. sinica
+ Leaf blade ovate to obovate, 8 mm wide or more; capsule apically pilose.   8 S. szechuanica
5 (2) Corolla outside glabrous; capsule 6-16-seeded   (6)
+ Corolla outside pubescent; capsule 4-seeded   (8)
6 (5) Leaves sessile; corolla yellow.   4 S. fluviatilis
+ Leaves petiolate; corolla blue or white   (7)
7 (6) Leaf blade pubescent, base abruptly truncate to slightly cordate; corolla blue.   5 S. reptans
+ Leaf blade subglabrous, base cuneate to rounded; corolla white.   6 S. cumingiana
8 (5) Stems, leaves, and inflorescences white pilose.   10 S. labordei
+ Stems, leaves, and inflorescences glabrous or very sparsely hirsute   (9)
9 (8) Corolla less than 1 cm.   9 S. wilsonii
+ Corolla 1.5-2 cm   (10)
10 (9) Leaf blade ovate to oblong-elliptic, 2-3 × as long as broad; ovary and capsule apically pubescent.   11 S. tetrasperma
+ Leaf blade lanceolate, ca. 4 × as long as broad; ovary and capsule glabrous.   12 S. japonica
11 (1) Inflorescences subcapitate or capitellate, with flowers densely clustered in groups of 4 or more, heads occasionally becoming subspicate in fruit   (12)
+ Inflorescences spicate or flowers in leaf axils or arranged singly or in opposite pairs in a panicle   (54)
12 (11) Anthers incurved but shorter ones sometimes reflexed, ± as broad as long so subspherical or ellipsoid; bracts and bracteoles if present caducous except in S. cuneata, S. kingdonii, S. glomerata, and sometimes S. capitata and S. speciosa   (13)
+ Anthers erect, oblong, ca. 2 × as long as broad; bracts persistent at least until fruit is formed   (30)
13 (12) Bracts greater than 1.5 cm, outermost commonly infertile, persistent, or if caducous then ovate   (14)
+ Bracts less than 1 cm, all normally flower-bearing, often scarious and early caducous   (18)
14 (13) Plants isophyllous; flowers in subsessile axillary clusters; leaf blade obovate.   100 S. cuneata
+ Plants anisophyllous; flowers in pedunculate heads; leaf blade ovate to oblong-elliptic   (15)
15 (14) Indumentum of somewhat rigid purplish trichomes.   101 S. glomerata
+ Indumentum of soft whitish trichomes   (16)
16 (15) Outermost bracts linear-oblong to lanceolate, margin often dentate, apex obtuse; isolated flowers sometimes present below main head.   104 S. kingdonii
+ Outermost bracts lanceolate or ovate, margin entire, apex acute or acuminate; inflorescences strictly capitate   (17)
17 (16) Bracts ovate, equaling or shorter than head; heads relatively stout, 1-3 cm broad; plants weakly anisophyllous.   102 S. capitata
+ Bracts lanceolate, commonly overtopping head; heads relatively slender, 1-1.5 cm broad; plants usually strongly anisophyllous.   103 S. speciosa
18 (13) Corolla outside glabrous even on lobes and in bud   (19)
+ Corolla pubescent or gland-tipped pubescent at least on lobes or in bud   (23)
19 (18) Leaf blade abaxially whitish; bracts fugacious; calyx in fruit with lobes subequal.   114 S. discolor
+ Leaf blade abaxially paler but not whitish; bracts usually present at anthesis; calyx in fruit with one lobe longer than others   (20)
20 (19) Calyx without gland-tipped trichomes.   107 S. ningmingensis
+ Calyx with gland-tipped trichomes   (21)
21 (20) Apex of bracts acute to acuminate.   108 S. dimorphotricha
+ Apex of bracts rounded or obtuse   (22)
22 (21) Bracts glabrous; inflorescences strictly capitellate; plants weakly anisophyllous.   106 S. penstemonoides
+ Bracts gland-tipped pubescent; some flower pairs usually present below capitulum; plants strongly anisophyllous.   116 S. multidens
23 (18) Inflorescences subterminal, arising only from apical leaf axils; leaf blade abaxially whitish, falcate.   117 S. oligocephala
+ Inflorescences not subterminal; leaf blade if abaxially whitish then not falcate   (24)
24 (23) Bracts fugacious, usually absent at anthesis; calyx lobes subequal   (25)
+ Bracts usually present; calyx with one lobe longer than others   (26)
25 (24) Plants isophyllous or weakly anisophyllous; leaves petiolate; leaf blade apex acuminate; corolla tube and lobes gland-tipped pubescent.   113 S. oxycalycina
+ Plants strongly anisophyllous; leaves sessile; leaf blade apex acute; corolla pilose only on lobes.   115 S. rhombifolia
26 (24) Apex of bracts obtuse or rounded   (27)
+ Apex of bracts acute or acuminate   (28)
27 (26) Peduncle longer so inflorescence exceeding subtending leaves.   110 S. formosana
+ Peduncle very short so inflorescence shorter than subtending leaves.   111 S. ovatibracteata
28 (26) Bracts gland-tipped pubescent.   109 S. glandibracteata
+ Bracts not gland-tipped pubescent   (29)
29 (28) Plants anisophyllous.   108 S. dimorphotricha
+ Plants isophyllous.   112 S. hupehensis
30 (12) Flowers arranged in small clusters along an axis forming a spike or panicle of capitula   (31)
+ Flowers arranged in axillary or terminal capitula   (32)
31 (30) Capsule 6-8-seeded; calyx lobes linear-lanceolate; anthers apiculate with an excurrent connective.   1 S. tomentosa
+ Capsule 4-seeded; calyx lobes ovate and abruptly narrowed to an apiculate apex; anthers muticous.   70 S. congesta
32 (30) Capsule 6-seeded or more; calyx hirsute inside at least near apex   (33)
+ Capsule 2-4-seeded; calyx glabrous inside (except in S. cruciata, S. oligantha, and S. wangiana)   (34)
33 (32) Corolla blue, bracts obtuse to acute.   2 S. quadrifaria
+ Corolla yellow, bracts apically beaked.   3 S. chinensis
34 (32) Calyx 2-lipped, upper 3 lobes partially fused   (35)
+ Calyx subequally 5-lobed to base   (37)
35 (34) Fertile stamens 2; leaf blade margin entire.   38 S. aprica
+ Fertile stamens 4; leaf blade margin serrate   (36)
36 (35) Lower calyx lip with 2 lobes, lobes distinct to base; capsule 2-seeded.   30 S. cyclus
+ Lower calyx lip 2-dentate, lobes connate for most of length; capsule 4-seeded.   95 S. bipartita
37 (34) Corolla completely glabrous even on lobes and tube and in bud   (38)
+ Corolla pubescent at least on lobes or tube or in bud   (42)
38 (37) Isophyllous herbs; corolla purple.   16 S. sarcorrhiza
+ Anisophyllous subshrubs; corolla white or rarely blue   (39)
39 (38) Stems winged; leaves sessile; anthers muticous.   96 S. retusa
+ Stems unwinged; leaves petiolate; anthers apiculate   (40)
40 (39) Outer bracts sessile, ovate.   99 S. echinata
+ Outer bracts with a broad petiolar base, pandurate in outline   (41)
41 (40) Petiolar base of bracts forming a rigid involucre, lamina spreading and ovate.   97 S. cruciata
+ Petiolar base not forming an involucre, bracts pandurate, apical portion narrowly lanceolate.   98 S. simonsii
42 (37) Bracts oblanceolate, obovate, subrhomboidal, or spatulate, broadest near apex, pilose with reddish or white trichomes   (43)
+ Bracts linear, lanceolate, or oblong-elliptic, widest below middle   (48)
43 (42) Bracts with reddish or brownish trichomes   (44)
+ Bracts with white trichomes   (46)
44 (43) Leaves and stem reddish brown setose.   20 S. hossei
+ Leaves and stem without reddish brown trichomes   (45)
45 (44) Bracts subrhomboidal-obovate, tips erect; pollen type 3.   21 S. torrentium
+ Bracts obovate, tips commonly recurved; pollen type 2.   22 S. anamitica
46 (43) Bracts distinct from leaves, obovate, with gland-tipped trichomes, apex rounded.   18 S. lihengiae
+ Bracts oblanceolate to obovate, with a few marginal teeth, densely white pilose, without gland-tipped trichomes, apically narrowed to an obtuse apex   (47)
47 (46) Corolla 2.2-2.8 cm; plants drying dark green; inflorescences often becoming spicate in fruit.   15 S. austrosinensis
+ Corolla 2.8-3.2 cm; plants not drying dark green; inflorescences not becoming spicate in fruit.   17 S. procumbens
48 (42) Bracts commonly yellowish, overtopping capitula and giving a characteristic eared appearance.   19 S. esquirolii
+ Bracts with white trichomes, not overtopping capitula which do not have an eared appearance   (49)
49 (48) Heads strictly terminal; calyx lobes with trichomes apically on inner surface   (50)
+ Heads arising from apical leaf axils; calyx glabrous inside   (51)
50 (49) Leaf blade abaxially glabrous except on veins; corolla 3.5-4 cm.   13 S. wangiana
+ Leaf blade usually pubescent or rarely glabrous; corolla less than 3.5 cm.   14 S. oligantha
51 (49) Leaf blade glabrous.   24 S. fengiana
+ Leaf blade pilose or pubescent on both surfaces   (52)
52 (51) Corolla straight or nearly so; heads clearly axillary; plants isophyllous.   23 S. yunnanensis
+ Corolla strongly bent; heads from apical leaf axils only; plants anisophyllous   (53)
53 (52) Heads slightly elongate; floral bracts lanceolate to oblong, pilose but margin not ciliate.   25 S. lamium
+ Heads very compact; floral bracts elliptic, margin ciliate.   26 S. cyphantha
54 (11) Leaf blade pinnatifid.   34 S. pinnatifida
+ Leaf blade margin dentate or serrate but never pinnatifid   (55)
55 (54) Bracts decurrent as a wing on peduncle.   48 S. pteroclada
+ Bracts not decurrent on peduncle   (56)
56 (55) Anthers incurved and shorter ones sometimes reflexed, subspherical or ellipsoid, ± as broad as long; bracts and bracteoles if present caducous except in S. longgangensis and cultivated forms of S. hamiltoniana and sometimes in S. lamiifolia   (57)
+ Anthers erect, oblong, ca. 2 × as long as broad; bracts persistent at least until fruit is formed   (68)
57 (56) Inflorescences an open panicle; flowers not arranged in opposite pairs   (58)
+ Inflorescences spicate; flowers in opposite pairs, sometimes aggregated into a panicle   (60)
58 (57) Corolla arcuate, less than 3 cm; inflorescence branches with non-glandular trichomes.   126 S. euantha
+ Corolla straight, greater than 3 cm; inflorescence branches glabrous or with gland-tipped trichomes   (59)
59 (58) Inflorescences branching at a narrower angle from axis, ultimate branches relatively stout and similar to primary branches.   124 S. hamiltoniana
+ Inflorescences branches at 90° from axis, ultimate branches very slender.   125 S. tenuiflora
60 (57) Inflorescences a terminal panicle of spikes   (61)
+ Inflorescences terminal or axillary but spikes never paniculate   (62)
61 (60) Leaf blade ovate, base rounded to broadly cuneate; basal leaves shortly petiolate, apical ones sessile.   122 S. mastersii
+ Leaf blade narrowly oblong-elliptic, base narrowly cuneate; leaves all petiolate.   123 S. tenax
62 (60) Inflorescences terminal or from apical leaf axils only   (63)
+ Inflorescences axillary spikes   (65)
63 (62) Inflorescences a short terminal spike; bracts mostly 1.5-2.5 cm, relatively persistent.   105 S. lamiifolia
+ Inflorescences of flower pairs scattered along axis but often crowded and subcapitellate near apex; bracts mostly less than 1.5 cm, caducous   (64)
64 (63) Corolla glabrous; bracts gland-tipped pilose.   116 S. multidens
+ Corolla gland-tipped pubescent on lobes; bracts not gland-tipped pilose.   117 S. oligocephala
65 (62) Corolla outside pubescent   (66)
+ Corolla outside glabrous   (67)
66 (65) Calyx less than 1.3 cm; bracts often present at least on young parts; leaf blade margin serrate.   119 S. thomsonii
+ Calyx 1.6-2 cm; bracts very caducous; leaf blade margin entire or sinuate.   121 S. secunda
67 (65) Leaf blade ovate, base rounded to cordate; anthers slightly exserted.   118 S. medogensis
+ Leaf blade narrowly elliptic, base cuneate; anthers included.   120 S. longgangensis
68 (56) Corolla outside glabrous but pubescent inside; leaves subentire; inflorescences leafy or 1-3-flowered axillary spikes   (69)
+ Corolla pubescent, or if outside glabrous then also inside glabrous except for trichomes retaining style; inflorescences not as above   (70)
69 (68) Leaf blade abaxially whitish; inflorescences paniculate.   127 S. parvifolia
+ Leaf blade abaxially reddish brown; inflorescences 1-3-flowered axillary spikes.   128 S. ferruginea
70 (68) Flowers in axillary spikes, with basal persistent expanded leaflike bracts; flowers not imbricate; spikes sometimes reduced so flowers are solitary in leaf axils, not aggregated into a terminal panicle   (71)
+ Flowers in axillary or terminal spikes but if axillary without leaflike bracts (except sometimes S. oresbia); flowers imbricate or not; spikes aggregated into a terminal panicle or not   (79)
71 (70) Calyx 2-lipped with upper three calyx lobes distinctly connate for half their length   (72)
+ Calyx subequally 5-lobed to base   (73)
72 (71) Corolla blue, not resupinate.   62 S. flexicaulis
+ Corolla white, resupinate.   63 S. lanyuensis
73 (71) Corolla outside glabrous   (74)
+ Corolla outside pubescent   (76)
74 (73) Leaf blade large with some greater than 10 cm, drying blackish; corolla straight, 3.5-5 cm.   61 S. cusia
+ Leaf blade mostly less than 6 cm, not drying blackish; corolla bent at mouth, 2.5-3.5 cm   (75)
75 (74) Calyx lobes linear, 1-1.5 mm wide, apex acute or rarely obtuse.   64 S. atropurpurea
+ Calyx lobes ovate-elliptic, 3-5 mm wide, apex obtuse.   65 S. latisepala
76 (73) Rachis of inflorescences strongly winged   (77)
+ Rachis of inflorescences not winged   (78)
77 (76) Calyx less than 2 cm; capsule glabrous.   66 S. tibetica
+ Calyx 2.5-3.6 cm; capsule comose.   67 S. pterygorrhachis
78 (76) Bracts margin entire, apex obtuse; plants subglabrous.   68 S. urophylla
+ Bracts margin dentate, apex acuminate; plants usually densely hirsute or rarely (in S. inflata var. gongshanensis) subglabrous.   69 S. inflata
79 (70) Flowers in axillary leafless spikes (sometimes from apicalmost axils); bracts distinct from leaves, often inconspicuous and merging into bracteoles and calyx lobes; spikes not aggregated into a leafless panicle except in S. nobilis and S. rostrata; corolla outside glabrous   (80)
+ Inflorescences terminal or terminal and axillary, sometimes forming a panicle of spikes, branches bearing leaves below spikes, if apparently axillary then corolla outside pubescent or bracts expanded and clearly different from calyx   (99)
80 (79) Calyx glabrous or with gland-tipped trichomes, margin never ciliate or ciliolate   (81)
+ Calyx lobes sometimes also with gland-tipped trichomes, margin ciliate or ciliolate   (85)
81 (80) Inflorescences with flowers solitary on one side of spike; bracts linear, persistent   (82)
+ Inflorescences with flowers paired and on two sides of spike; bracts ovate to oblong-elliptic, somewhat caducous   (83)
82 (81) Spikes strictly axillary; inflorescences glabrous.   54 S. helicta
+ Spikes aggregated into a terminal panicle; inflorescences with gland-tipped trichomes.   55 S. rostrata
83 (81) Corolla bent; leaf blade abaxially whitish, margin entire to crenate.   52 S. rubescens
+ Corolla straight; leaf blade abaxially green, margin coarsely serrate   (84)
84 (83) Apex of bracts acute to obtuse; stems winged.   41 S. pateriformis
+ Apex of bracts truncate; stems not winged.   42 S. truncata
85 (80) Bracts with a recurved tip; inflorescences reddish brown.   92 S. brunnescens
+ Bracts with an erect tip; inflorescences greenish or rarely reddish brown   (86)
86 (85) Bracts ovate, obovate, or broadly elliptic, distinctly shorter than calyx   (87)
+ Bracts lanceolate, ovate, or oblong, usually equaling or exceeding calyx   (92)
87 (86) Bracts abaxially with 2 raised eyelike structures.   84 S. biocullata
+ Bracts abaxially without raised eyelike structures although sometimes with large sessile glands   (88)
88 (87) Spikes from apical axils; bracts obovate-spatulate.   80 S. pseudocollina
+ Spikes not restricted to apical axils; bracts ovate to elliptic   (89)
89 (88) Bracts not abruptly narrowed and without a mucronate apex   (90)
+ Bracts abruptly narrowed with a mucronate and sometimes caducous apex   (91)
90 (89) Spikes commonly branched; flower pairs close along rachis; calyx 2-lipped with 3 upper lobes partially fused.   81 S. longzhouensis
+ Spikes simple; flower pairs distant along rachis; calyx subequally 5-lobed to base.   82 S. cystolithigera
91 (89) Plant drying olive-green; bracts abaxially with sessile glandular area, apex not fimbriate, lacking reddish brown trichomes.   83 S. abbreviata
+ Plant drying blackish green; bracts abaxially without glandular area, apex often fimbriate with reddish brown trichomes.   91 S. fimbriata
92 (86) Leaf blade often pandurate, base rounded; apical leaves sessile; spikes elongating beyond leaves and inflorescence often of paniculate spikes in fruit.   93 S. nobilis
+ Leaf blade not pandurate, base cuneate; all leaves petiolate; inflorescence not paniculate in fruit   (93)
93 (92) Spikes only from terminal leaf axils   (94)
+ Spikes not restricted to terminal axils   (95)
94 (93) Spikes 1-3 per axil; bracts abaxially with sessile black glands.   89 S. heteroclita
+ Spikes 1 per axil; bracts abaxially lacking black glands.   90 S. mucronatoproducta
95 (93) Spikes 1-5 per leaf axil.   94 S. polyneuros
+ Spike usually 1 per leaf axil   (96)
96 (95) Bracts 2-3 cm, much exceeding calyx.   88 S. compacta
+ Bracts less than 1.5 cm, ± equaling calyx   (97)
97 (96) Stems, leaves, and bracts pubescent.   87 S. guangxiensis
+ Plant completely glabrous except for ciliolate margin of calyx lobes   (98)
98 (97) Spikes often branched, robust; leaf blade oblong, some greater than 15 cm.   85 S. longespicata
+ Spikes simple, slender; leaf blade elliptic, less than 12 cm.   86 S. myura
99 (79) Fertile stamens 2   (100)
+ Fertile stamens 4   (102)
100 (99) Spikes simple; capsule glabrous apart from a few apical glands.   29 S. henryi
+ Spikes branched forming a terminal panicle of spikes; capsule pubescent   (101)
101 (100) Bracts broadly oblong-ovate to oblong-obovate, not imbricate so flowers clearly separate.   31 S. serrata
+ Bracts obovate, imbricate.   32 S. tubiflos
102 (99) Bracts imbricate   (103)
+ Bracts not imbricate so flowers clearly separate apart from basalmost   (114)
103 (102) Bracts greater than 1.5 cm   (104)
+ Bracts less than 1.5 cm   (107)
104 (103) Bracts distinct from apical leaves, ca. 3 cm, margin without prominent white cilia   (105)
+ Bracts indistinct from apical leaves, less than 2 cm, margin with prominent white cilia   (106)
105 (104) Bracts not sticky glandular; capsule 12-seeded.   2 S. quadrifaria
+ Bracts sticky glandular; capsule 4-seeded.   60 S. cognata
106 (104) Bracts ovate to elliptic; corolla 3-3.5 cm.   14 S. oligantha
+ Bracts obovate; corolla 2.2-2.8 cm.   15 S. austrosinensis
107 (103) Leaves sessile; leaf blade oblong; spikes axillary as well as terminal.   35 S. auriculata
+ Leaves petiolate; leaf blade ovate or elliptic; spikes all terminal on leafy branches or main stem   (108)
108 (107) Anthers strongly exserted from corolla.   33 S. affinis
+ Anthers included in corolla   (109)
109 (108) Corolla outside glabrous   (110)
+ Corolla outside pubescent   (112)
110 (109) Bracts linear-spatulate, broadest at apex.   57 S. tonkinensis
+ Bracts oblong or elliptic, broadest in middle or base   (111)
111 (110) Bracts elliptic, 5-6 mm wide.   27 S. strigosa
+ Bracts oblong , 2-3 mm wide.   58 S. stolonifera
112 (109) Leaves glabrous.   28 S. longiflora
+ Leaves pubescent   (113)
113 (112) Calyx 2-lipped, 3 upper lobes partially fused.   36 S. mogokensis
+ Calyx subequally 5-lobed to base.   37 S. argentea
114 (102) Inflorescences a 15-25 cm uninterrupted spike from apicalmost leaf axils.   59 S. vallicola
+ Inflorescences a much shorter spike but if similar in length then basalmost flowers widely spaced   (115)
115 (114) Corolla outside glabrous   (116)
+ Corolla outside pubescent at least in bud, on lobes, or tube   (123)
116 (115) Calyx subequally 5-lobed to base   (117)
+ Calyx 2-lipped, 3 upper lobes partially fused   (119)
117 (116) Stems and leaves sparsely pubescent.   51 S. taoana
+ Stems and leaves completely glabrous   (118)
118 (117) Inflorescences branched; calyx glabrous; leaf blade broadly ovate to suborbicular; floral bracts 7-11 mm.   53 S. pinetorum
+ Inflorescences of simple terminal spikes; calyx gland-tipped pilose; leaf blade elliptic; floral bracts 5-6.5 mm.   56 S. chrysodelta
119 (116) Bracts 2-3 cm, much longer than calyx.   46 S. adpressa
+ Bracts less than 1.4 cm, equaling or shorter than calyx   (120)
120 (119) Bracts ovate.   49 S. ovata
+ Bracts linear-lanceolate or oblong   (121)
121 (120) Spikes with 1-3 flower pairs; bracts greater than 10 mm.   47 S. atroviridis
+ Spikes with 1-7 flower pairs; bracts less than 8 mm   (122)
122 (121) Bracts linear-lanceolate; rachis unwinged; plant drying blackish green.   44 S. longispica
+ Bracts oblong-ovate; rachis winged; plant not drying blackish green.   45 S. dryadum
123 (115) Plants strongly anisophyllous; corolla densely white pubescent in bud; capsule glabrous   (124)
+ Plants not strongly anisophyllous; corolla not densely white pubescent in bud; capsule gland-tipped pubescent at apex   (125)
124 (123) Bracts linear, attenuate; calyx lobes finely acute.   39 S. dalzielii
+ Bracts oblanceolate; calyx lobes obtuse.   40 S. bantonensis
125 (123) Leaves sessile   (126)
+ Leaves petiolate   (127)
126 (125) Leaf blade ovate to suborbicular, ± as long as broad, abaxially whitish; bracts orbicular to obovate, 5-8 mm.   50 S. tamburensis
+ Leaves narrowly ovate, ca. 3 × as long as broad, abaxially green; bracts lanceolate, 7-10 mm.   75 S. forrestii
127 (125) Corolla ventricose and strongly bent just below mouth, pubescent over its whole length   (128)
+ Corolla gradually widened above base, curved but not very strongly so, pubescent on lips only   (131)
128 (127) Corolla inside pubescent especially on lobes   (129)
+ Corolla inside glabrous even on lobes   (130)
129 (128) Bracts oblong, margin entire or with a few apical teeth; spikes 2-sided.   71 S. larium
+ Bracts broadly to narrowly ovate to lanceolate, margin mostly serrate; spikes often secund.   72 S. oresbia
130 (128) Bracts much reduced even at base of spike; leaf blade mostly greater than 5 cm; petiole 2-5 cm.   73 S. flexa
+ Bracts leaflike almost to spike apex; leaf blade mostly less than 5 cm; petiole (0-)1-3 cm.   74 S. versicolor
131 (127) Spikes extremely lax, with apical flower pairs commonly separated by greater than 1 cm along rachis; bracts ovate; calyx lobes conspicuously spatulate in fruit.   78 S. extensa
+ Spikes apically relatively dense, with flower pairs becoming imbricate along rachis; bracts linear to lanceolate; calyx lobes not usually conspicuously spatulate   (132)
132 (131) Inflorescences mostly of simple terminal spikes; leaf blade glabrous.   79 S. spiciformis
+ Inflorescences a panicle of spikes; leaf blade pubescent at least when young   (133)
133 (132) Leaf blade ovate, obovate, or broadly elliptic, ca. 2 × as long as broad.   76 S. lachenensis
+ Leaf blade narrowly oblong-elliptic, 3-4 × as long as broad.   77 S. nemorosa

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