All Floras      Advanced Search
FOC Vol. 15 Page 324 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 15 | Loganiaceae

4. Strychnos Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 189. 1753.

马钱子属 ma qian shu

Shrubs, trees, or lianas, armed or unarmed. If lianas then with axillary simple or double curled tendrils, sometimes with axillary thorns. Stipules often reduced to a straight ciliate ridge connecting petiole bases. Leaves petiolate to sometimes subsessile; leaf blade margin entire, basal veins 3--7, secondary veins 1--3 distinct pairs from or near base curved along margin in species represented. Inflorescences terminal and/or axillary, thyrsoid; bracts scalelike to sepal-like. Flowers pedicellate or sessile, 4- or 5-merous. Corolla rotate to salverform; lobes valvate in bud, spreading to reflexed when open. Stamens inserted at corolla throat to middle of corolla tube, exserted to included; filaments long to short, mostly filiform; anthers orbicular to narrowly oblong, base mostly slightly 2-cleft, introrse, 2-locular and separate. Ovary (1- or)2-locular, with few to many ovules per locule. Style cylindrical; stigma capitate or faintly 2-cleft. Berries orange or red when ripe in species represented, usually globose to ellipsoid, thin- to thick-walled, outside smooth to minutely warty, glabrous; pulp fleshy, usually orange; 1--15-seeded. Seeds ± flattened to saucer-shaped, circular to elliptic in outline; seed coat sericeous, felty, or scabrous and glabrous; embryo spatulate; endosperm horny; cotyledon leaflike.

About 190 species: tropics and subtropics; 11 species in China.

Many species are medicinal and poisonous.


1 Trees, tendrils never present.   (2)
+ Lianas, sometimes with axillary tendrils.   (4)
       
2 (1) Petiole 2--4 mm; leaf blade abaxially granular; young plants spiny; inflorescences terminal   3 Strychnos lucida
+ Petiole 5--15 mm; leaf blade abaxially smooth; plants never spiny; inflorescences axillary.   (3)
       
3 (2) Sepals ovate, outside densely pubescent; fruit 2--4 cm in diam.   1 Strychnos nux-vomica
+ Sepals narrowly oblong, subglabrous; fruit 6--8 cm in diam.   2 Strychnos nux-blanda
       
4 (1) Flowering specimen.   (5)
+ Fruiting specimen.   (12)
       
5 (4) Flower buds 3--4.5 mm.   (6)
+ Flower buds 8--17 mm.   (8)
       
6 (5) Flowers 4(or 5)-merous; anthers exserted; inflorescences 6--12 cm   5 Strychnos umbellata
+ Flowers 5-merous; anthers included; inflorescences 1--5 cm.   (7)
       
7 (6) Corolla inside pubescent at mouth and on base of lobes, lobes longer than tube; leaf blade 8--13 cm   4 Strychnos ovata
+ Corolla inside with a row of erect bristlelike hairs at base or to middle of lobes, lobes ± as long as tube; leaf blade 2--10 cm   7 Strychnos axillaris
       
8 (5) Corolla lobes ± as long as tube; filaments longer than anthers   6 Strychnos angustiflora
+ Corolla lobes shorter than tube; filaments shorter than anthers.   (9)
       
9 (8) Corolla 0.8-1.2 cm, tube glabrous inside   8 Strychnos cathayensis
+ Corolla 1.4--1.7 cm, tube pubescent inside.   (10)
       
10 (9) Corolla tube pubescent at mouth; style villous   9 Strychnos nitida
+ Corolla tube pubescent on lower half; style glabrous.   (11)
       
11 (10) Inflorescences axillary; anther connective apiculate at apex; sepal margin glabrous   10 Strychnos ignatii
+ Inflorescences terminal; anther connective obtuse or rounded at apex; sepal margin ciliate   11 Strychnos wallichiana
       
12 (4) Seeds 0.6--1.8 cm.   (13)
+ Seeds 2--3 cm.   (16)
       
13 (12) Fruit to 2 cm in diam., 1--3-seeded.   (14)
+ Fruit 2--5.5 cm in diam., often more than 3-seeded.   (15)
       
14 (13) Leaf apex acute to rounded; inflorescences 6--12 cm   5 Strychnos umbellata
+ Leaf apex acuminate; inflorescences 1--5 cm   7 Strychnos axillaris
       
15 (13) Branchlets spiny; tendrils absent; petiole ca. 1.5 cm; leaf blade 8--13 cm   4 Strychnos ovata
+ Branchlets not spiny but older branches spiny; tendrils present; petiole 0.4--0.6 cm; leaf blade 3--8 cm   6 Strychnos angustiflora
       
16 (12) Fruit wall not woody, to 3 mm thick.   (17)
+ Fruit wall woody, ca. 5 mm thick.   (18)
       
17 (16) Fruit 1.5--3 cm in diam., 2--7-seeded; petiole 2--4 mm   8 Strychnos cathayensis
+ Fruit 4--6 cm in diam., many-seeded; petiole 5--7 mm   11 Strychnos wallichiana
       
18 (16) Tendrils double; leaf blade base cuneate to broadly cuneate   9 Strychnos nitida
+ Tendrils single; leaf blade base obtuse to rounded   10 Strychnos ignatii

  • List of lower taxa


     

    Related Objects  
  • PDF File
  • PDF

    A Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar  
  • Living Plant image: RANDRIANAIVO 1343 (Richard Randrianaivo)
  • Image/JPEG
  • Living Plant image: RANDRIANAIVO 1343 (Richard Randrianaivo)
  • Image/JPEG
  • Living Plant image: RANDRIANAIVO 1349 (Richard Randrianaivo)
  • Image/JPEG
  • Living Plant image: RANDRIANAIVO 1349 (Richard Randrianaivo)
  • Image/JPEG

  • Flora of China @ efloras.org
    Browse by
    Volume
    Family
    Genera
    Advanced Search


    Flora of China Home


    Checklist

     

     

     |  eFlora Home |  People Search  |  Help  |  ActKey  |  Hu Cards  |  Glossary  |