All Floras      Advanced Search
FOC Vol. 15 Page 235 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 15 | Symplocaceae

1. Symplocos Jacquin, Enum. Syst. Pl. 5, 24. 1760.

山矾属 shan fan shu

Morphological characters and geographical distribution are the same as the family.


1 Petals connate at least halfway to apex (subgen. Symplocos)   41 Symplocos pendula
+ Petals connate only at very base (subgen. Hopea (Linnaeus) C. B. Clarke).   (2)
       
2 (1) Plants deciduous; inflorescences a terminal panicle   40 Symplocos paniculata
+ Plants evergreen; inflorescences not terminal.   (3)
       
3 (2) Flowers solitary or to 3 from a leaf axil.   (4)
+ Flowers in a more than 3-flowered inflorescence.   (6)
       
4 (3) Petiole with 2 rows of glands; twigs pubescent or tomentose; bracts ca. 1 mm; fruit oblong   5 Symplocos euryoides
+ Petiole without glands or with few glands; twigs puberulent or patently pilose; bracts 2--4 mm; fruit ampulliform or ovoid.   (5)
       
5 (4) Leaf blade abaxially glabrous, apex acute to rounded, reticulation obscure; twigs inconspicuously puberulent; calyx glabrous, lobes ca. 2 mm; disc cupular; fruit ovoid, ca. 5 mm wide   9 Symplocos nokoensis
+ Leaf blade abaxially hairy at least when young, apex acuminate, reticulation distinct; twigs patently pilose; calyx pubescent, lobes 2.5--3 mm; disc cylindrical; fruit ampulliform, ca. 4 mm wide   6 Symplocos ovatilobata
       
6 (3) Leaf blade midvein adaxially prominent at least towards base or flat.   (7)
+ Leaf blade midvein adaxially impressed.   (11)
       
7 (6) Twigs, terminal buds, bracts, and bractlets glabrous   1 Symplocos lucida
+ Twigs hairy at least when young, terminal buds pubescent, and bracts and bractlets hairy.   (8)
       
8 (7) Leaf blade adaxially hairy, base broadly cuneate to rounded   4 Symplocos groffii
+ Leaf blade adaxially glabrous, base attenuate-cuneate to narrowly cuneate.   (9)
       
9 (8) Inflorescences a branched raceme; leaf blade abaxially glabrous; bracts and bractlets persistent   2 Symplocos anomala
+ Inflorescences a branched spike; leaf blade abaxially hairy at least when young; bracts and bractlets under fruit early deciduous.   (10)
       
10 (9) Leaves evenly distributed; leaf blade abaxially often appressed fine hairy, base attenuate-cuneate, intramarginal vein not close to margin; fruit ellipsoid to subglobose, 3--5 X 2--5 mm   27 Symplocos lancifolia
+ Leaves crowded at end of branchlets; leaf blade abaxially minutely scattered hairy, base narrowly cuneate, intramarginal vein close to margin; fruit ovoid, 10--12 X 6--8 mm   3 Symplocos wikstroemiifolia
       
11 (6) Inflorescences a sessile or rarely elongated cluster or glomerule.   (12)
+ Inflorescences a branched spike or raceme.   (27)
       
12 (11) Leaf blade abaxially hairy (under a hand lens) at least when young.   (13)
+ Leaf blade abaxially glabrous.   (19)
       
13 (12) Ovary hairy.   (14)
+ Ovary glabrous.   (15)
       
14 (13) Petiole ca. 2 cm; twigs tomentose; leaf blade narrowly elliptic, abaxially with cobwebby hairs, margin with 8--12 glands per cm; bracts 2.5--3 mm; calyx lobes ca. 2 mm; corolla 5--6 mm, fruit cylindrical   30 Symplocos glandulifera
+ Petiole 0.3--0.5 cm; twigs puberulent; leaf blade elliptic to ovate, abaxially with appressed fine hairs, margin with less than 6 glands per cm; bracts ca. 2 mm; calyx lobes ca. 1 mm; corolla 3--4 mm; fruit ampulliform to ovoid   16 Symplocos atriolivacea
       
15 (13) Leaf blade adaxially hairy; twigs pubescent; fruit subglobose, ca. 5 mm   36 Symplocos dolichotricha
+ Leaf blade adaxially glabrous; twigs tomentose, villous, or tomentellous; fruit cylindrical, ellipsoid, or narrowly ovoid, 8--20 mm.   (16)
       
16 (15) Calyx hairy.   (17)
+ Calyx glabrous but sometimes margin ciliate.   (18)
       
17 (16) Leaf blade 7--10 cm, abaxially not papillate and not glaucous, base broadly cuneate, intramarginal vein present, reticulation distinct; twigs tomentose; fruit ellipsoid, ca. 1 cm   35 Symplocos fukienensis
+ Leaf blade 10--26 cm, abaxially papillate (always so near base) and glaucous, base cuneate, intramarginal vein absent, reticulation obscure; twigs tomentellous to tomentose; fruit cylindrical to narrowly ovoid, 1.2--2 cm   10 Symplocos glauca
       
18 (16) Petiole without glands or with few glands; leaf blade narrowly elliptic to narrowly ovate, margin entire, apex acute to rounded, intramarginal vein close to margin; corolla ca. 6 mm; disc flat, annular   34 Symplocos ulotricha
+ Petiole with 2 rows of glands; leaf blade elliptic to ovate, margin glandular dentate to denticulate with 6--12 glands per cm, apex acuminate, intramarginal vein not close to margin; corolla 3--5 mm; disc cylindrical, 0.5--1 mm   32 Symplocos adenopus
       
19 (12) Calyx hairy; fruit 6--8 mm wide   10 Symplocos glauca
+ Calyx glabrous but sometimes margin ciliate, rarely woolly tomentose; fruit 2.5--5 mm wide (not known in S. spectabilis).   (20)
       
20 (19) Leaf blade margin with 6--12 glands per cm   32 Symplocos adenopus
+ Leaf blade margin without glands or with less than 6 glands per cm.   (21)
       
21 (20) Disc cylindrical (annular in S. spectabilis).   (22)
+ Disc flat, low cylindrical, or annular, often 5-glandular.   (25)
       
22 (21) Leaf blade margin glandular dentate to denticulate.   (23)
+ Leaf blade margin entire with distinct marginal thickening.   (24)
       
23 (22) Stamens ca. 50; corolla apically ciliate, 5--8 mm   33 Symplocos stellaris
+ Stamens ca. 30; corolla glabrous, 4--5 mm   31 Symplocos glomerata
       
24 (22) Leaf blade margin revolute, lateral veins abaxially obscure   33 Symplocos stellaris
+ Leaf blade margin flat, lateral veins prominent   42 Symplocos spectabilis
       
25 (21) Twigs glabrous; leaf blade with 11-14 pairs of lateral veins   39 Symplocos poilanei
+ Twigs hairy at least when young; leaf blade with 5--10 pairs of lateral veins.   (26)
       
26 (25) Twigs tomentellous; leaf blade elliptic to obovate, reticulation distinct; calyx lobes 1.5--3.5 mm   38 Symplocos congesta
+ Twigs puberulent; leaf blade narrowly elliptic, reticulation obscure; calyx lobes ca. 1 mm   37 Symplocos austrosinensis
       
27 (11) Ovary hairy (glabrous in S. xylopyrena).   (28)
+ Ovary glabrous.   (37)
       
28 (27) Bracts and bractlets glabrous or subglabrous but margin sometimes ciliate.   (29)
+ Bracts and bractlets hairy.   (30)
       
29 (28) Leaf blade with 11--13 pairs of lateral veins; ovary ca. 1.7 mm; corolla ca. 6 mm; fruit ca. 3 X 1 cm   18 Symplocos xylopyrena
+ Leaf blade with 4--10 pairs of lateral veins; ovary 1--1.5 mm; corolla 3--5 mm; fruit 0.9--1.2 X 0.4--0.5 cm   17 Symplocos ramosissima
       
30 (28) Petiole with 2 rows of glands; leaf blade margin with 6--12 glands per cm   15 Symplocos adenophylla
+ Petiole without glands or with few glands; leaf blade margin with less than 6 glands per cm.   (31)
       
31 (30) Inflorescences a branched spike   16 Symplocos atriolivacea
+ Inflorescences a branched or unbranched raceme or raceme forming a pseudocone in bud.   (32)
       
32 (31) Twigs glabrous.   (33)
+ Twigs hairy at least when young.   (34)
       
33 (32) Disc cylindrical to pulvinate; leaf blade intramarginal vein not close to margin; bracts and bractlets persistent   11 Symplocos viridissima
+ Disc flat or annular; leaf blade intramarginal vein close to margin; bracts and bractlets under fruit early deciduous.   7 Symplocos sumuntia
       
34 (32) Disc hairy; inflorescences a raceme, forming a pseudocone in bud; bracts and bractlets under fruit early deciduous.   (35)
+ Disc glabrous; inflorescences a branched raceme; bracts and bractlets persistent.   (36)
       
35 (34) Leaf blade narrowly elliptic to narrowly ovate, abaxially minutely appressed hairy to pubescent, base cuneate, reticulation distinct; corolla ca. 4 mm; fruit 7--10 X ca. 4 mm   25 Symplocos sulcata
+ Leaf blade obovate, abaxially tomentose, base broadly cuneate, reticulation obscure; corolla 6--9 mm; fruit 14--24 X 5--9 mm   23 Symplocos hookeri
       
36 (34) Leaf blade abaxially spreading long pilose; twigs densely pilose; terminal buds with long hairs; disc flat; fruit cylindrical, ca. 1.4 cm   26 Symplocos pilosa
+ Leaf blade abaxially appressed fine hairy or glabrous; twigs pubescent; terminal buds pubescent; disc cylindrical; fruit ampulliform, 0.7--1 cm   11 Symplocos viridissima
       
37 (27) Inflorescences a branched spike.   (38)
+ Inflorescences a branched raceme or a raceme forming a pseudocone in bud.   (42)
       
38 (37) Calyx hairy   28 Symplocos cochinchinensis
+ Calyx glabrous.   (39)
       
39 (38) Twigs hairy at least when young; terminal buds with long hairs; petiole 2--3 mm; leaf blade abaxially hairy at least when young, apex caudate; calyx 3-lobed; fruit ovoid   8 Symplocos fordii
+ Twigs glabrous; terminal buds glabrous or pubescent; petiole 7--25 mm; leaf blade abaxially glabrous, apex rounded, acuminate, or acute; calyx 5-lobed; fruit cylindrical, ampulliform, narrowly ovoid, or subglobose.   (40)
       
40 (39) Leaf blade obovate; inflorescences 0.5--1.5 cm   39 Symplocos poilanei
+ Leaf blade narrowly elliptic, elliptic, or ovate; inflorescences 3--14 cm.   (41)
       
41 (40) Leaf blade margin serrulate; terminal buds glabrous; bracts and bractlets under fruit early deciduous; bracts ca. 1 mm; fruit cylindrical to narrowly ovoid, 12--15 mm   13 Symplocos hainanensis
+ Leaf blade margin glandular dentate or denticulate; terminal buds pubescent; bracts and bractlets persistent; bracts ca. 2 mm; fruit ampulliform or subglobose, 4--6 mm   28 Symplocos cochinchinensis
       
42 (37) Bracts and bractlets glabrous or soon glabrescent.   (43)
+ Bracts and bractlets hairy.   (46)
       
43 (42) Petiole 1.5--4 mm   19 Symplocos modesta
+ Petiole 5--30 mm.   (44)
       
44 (43) Disc hairy   23 Symplocos hookeri
+ Disc glabrous.   (45)
       
45 (44) Calyx lobes ca. 1.5 mm; leaf blade reticulation fine; inflorescences a raceme, forming a pseudocone in bud; bracts and bractlets under fruit early deciduous; bracts 5--9 mm; ovary 1.5--2 mm; corolla 6--7 mm; fruit ellipsoid to obovoid, 1.5--2 cm   22 Symplocos crassilimba
+ Calyx lobes 0.3--0.5 mm; leaf blade reticulation coarse; inflorescences a branched raceme; bracts and bractlets persistent; bracts 1--2 mm; ovary ca. 1 mm; corolla 1.5--4 mm; fruit ovoid-oblong to ampulliform, 0.6--0.8 cm   12 Symplocos pseudobarberina
       
46 (42) Leaf blade abaxially hairy at least when young   21 Symplocos racemosa
+ Leaf blade abaxially glabrous.   (47)
       
47 (46) Twigs hairy at least when young.   (48)
+ Twigs glabrous or base of young twigs hairy between scars of bud scales.   (49)
       
48 (47) Leaf blade apex caudate-acuminate; stamens 20--50; disc glabrous   14 Symplocos heishanensis
+ Leaf blade apex acute to obtuse; stamens 80 or more; disc hairy   21 Symplocos racemosa
       
49 (47) Twigs glabrous but base of young twigs hairy between scars of bud scales.   (50)
+ Twigs glabrous.   (51)
       
50 (49) Leaf blade narrowly elliptic, reticulation fine; inflorescences a raceme forming a pseudocone in bud, ca. 4 cm; calyx hairy   24 Symplocos pyrifolia
+ Leaf blade elliptic to narrowly obovate, reticulation coarse; inflorescences a raceme, 6--9 cm; calyx glabrous   20 Symplocos dryophila
       
51 (49) Disc hairy; leaf blade base narrowly or broadly cuneate.   (52)
+ Disc glabrous; leaf blade base cuneate or rounded.   (53)
       
52 (51) Petiole 0.5--0.7 cm; terminal buds pubescent; leaf blade narrowly elliptic, 4--8 X 1--3 cm, base narrowly cuneate, lateral veins 3--5 pairs, reticulation obscure; inflorescences a branched raceme; calyx hairy   29 Symplocos paucinervia
+ Petiole 1.2--3 cm; terminal buds glabrous; leaf blade obovate, 15--25 X 5.5--10 cm, base broadly cuneate, lateral veins 6--11 pairs, reticulation distinct; inflorescences a raceme forming a pseudocone in bud; calyx glabrous   23 Symplocos hookeri
       
53 (51) Bracts ca. 1 mm; fruit cylindrical to narrowly ovoid   13 Symplocos hainanensis
+ Bracts 1.5--5 mm; fruit ampulliform to ovoid.   (54)
       
54 (53) Leaf blade narrowly elliptic to narrowly obovate, lateral veins 9--14 pairs, reticulation obscure   14 Symplocos heishanensis
+ Leaf blade elliptic to ovate, lateral veins 4--8(--10) pairs, reticulation distinct   7 Symplocos sumuntia

  • List of lower taxa


     

    Related Objects  
  • PDF File
  • PDF

    Flora of North America  
  • Illustration
  • Illustration
    Trees and shrubs of the Andes of Ecuador  
  • Symplocos fuscata (Carmen Ulloa)
  • Image/JPEG

  • Flora of China @ efloras.org
    Browse by
    Volume
    Family
    Genera
    Advanced Search


    Flora of China Home


    Checklist

     

     

     |  eFlora Home |  People Search  |  Help  |  ActKey  |  Hu Cards  |  Glossary  |