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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 2-3 | Tectariaceae

4. Tectaria Cavanilles, Ann. Hist. Nat. 1: 115. 1799.

叉蕨属 cha jue shu

Authors: Prof. Fuwu Xing, Yan Yuehong & Maarten J. M. Christenhusz

Bathmium C. Presl ex Link; Cardiochlaena Fée; Ctenitopsis Ching ex Tardieu & C. Christensen; Fadyenia Hooker; Hemigramma Christ; Lenda Koidzumi; Podopeltis Fée; Quercifilix Copeland; Sagenia C. Presl.

Plants terrestrial. Rhizome erect or ascending to creeping, short or long, stout or slender, scaly at apex; rhizome and basal stipe scales brown, lanceolate, margins entire or ciliate, membranous. Stipe stramineous or brown to black, scaly at base or sometimes throughout. Fronds monomorphic to strongly dimorphic, simple or pinnate to multiple times pinnate-pinnatifid, often triangular or pentagonal, pinnae and lobes usually entire, never serrate; all axes hairy with articulate multicellular hairs; veins variously anastomosing, included veinlets if present simple or forked. Sori terminal on included free veins, dorsal on veins or compital on connected veins, usually orbicular, sometimes elongate, anastomosing in lines, in some species throughout abaxial surface of lamina when mature, indusiate or exindusiate; indusia if present orbicular-reniform, persistent or caducous. Spores ovoid or elliptic, perispore verrucose, rugose, or spinose. n = 10, (40).

About 230 species: pantropical; 35 species (six endemic) in China.

1 Fertile lamina much contracted; sporangia not forming sori but dense along veinlets   (2)
+ Fertile fronds not or only slightly contracted; sori orbicular, separate, usually indusiate   (3)
2 (1) Lamina glabrous; plants usually large (Hemigramma group).   13 T. harlandii
+ Lamina hairy; plants minute, fronds less than 20 cm (Quercifilix group).   35 T. zeilanica
3 (1) Veins free or partly anastomosing, but then only those veins along costae or costules connecting, areoles without included veinlets (Ctenitopsis group)   (4)
+ Veins fully anastomosing, areoles with included veinlets (Tectaria group)   (13)
4 (3) Basiscopic pinnules or lobes of basal pinnae not elongated, often shortened   (5)
+ Basiscopic pinnules or lobes of basal pinnae obviously elongated   (7)
5 (4) Fronds bipinnate at base; veinlets anastomosing and forming obvious areoles.   2 T. chinensis
+ Fronds bipinnatifid at base; veinlets free or occasionally anastomosing   (6)
6 (5) Stipes and rachises deep castaneous to dark brown, glossy; basal pinnae not shortened; sori intramarginal, indusiate.   26 T. sagenioides
+ Stipes and rachises dark brown, dull; basal pinnae shortened; sori terminal, exindusiate.   30 T. subsageniacea
7 (4) Plants ca. 2 m or taller; basal lamina 4-pinnatifid to 4-pinnate, 2-pinnate or 3-pinnatifid toward apices   (8)
+ Plants up to 1 m tall; basal lamina 3-pinnatifid to 3-pinnate, 2-pinnatifid upward   (9)
8 (7) Fronds glabrescent on both surfaces, dimorphic.   16 T. ingens
+ Fronds densely hairy on both surfaces, homomorphic.   27 T. setulosa
9 (7) Veinlets free   (10)
+ Veinlets anastomosing and forming obvious areoles   (11)
10 (9) Fronds triangular-ovate to ovate; pinnae 6-8 pairs, stipes and rachis glabrous or nearly so.   6 T. dissecta
+ Fronds elliptic-lanceolate to elliptic; pinnae 9-12 pairs, stipes and rachis densely hairy.   17 T. kusukusensis
11 (9) Fronds homomorphic, 3-pinnate at base; stipes stramineous or brown to castaneous, scales deep brown, concolorous.   5 T. devexa
+ Fronds dimorphic, 2-pinnate at base; stipes stramineous, scales dark brown with a paler margin   (12)
12 (11) Sori only at tip of lobes.   1 T. acrocarpa
+ Sori throughout.   10 T. fuscipes
13 (3) Sori large, terminal on (included) veinlets, in 2 rows between lateral veins; indusia large, persistent   (14)
+ Sori small, on anastomosing veinlets, in irregular rows between lateral veins; indusium small, caducous   (24)
14 (13) Veins forming a single row of narrow areoles along pinna rachises; included veinlets simple (not forked) when present   (15)
+ Veins inconspicuous; included veinlets forked   (18)
15 (14) Fronds dimorphic; length of stipes up to ca. 2 ?length of lamina.   15 T. impressa
+ Fronds homomorphic; length of stipes equal to or shorter than length of lamina   (16)
16 (15) Stipes scaly throughout.   11 T. griffithii
+ Stipes scaly only at base   (17)
17 (16) Rhizome and stipe base with blunt spines; pinnae distant.   24 T. remotipinna
+ Rhizome and stipe base without spines; pinnae closer.   3 T. coadunata
18 (14) Bases of lamina decurrent; stipes broadly winged nearly to base   (19)
+ Bases of lamina not decurrent; stipes not winged   (20)
19 (18) Lamina deeply pinnately lobed, oblong-ovate.   4 T. decurrens
+ Lamina simple, not lobed, lanceolate.   18 T. leptophylla
20 (18) Stipes and rachises black, glossy.   8 T. ebenina
+ Stipes and rachises brown or stramineous, slightly glossy or dull   (21)
21 (20) Stipes stramineous; fronds small, deltoid-ovate, palmately 3-5-parted.   29 T. subpedata
+ Stipes brown to dark brown; fronds large, ovate-lanceolate, pinnately 1-3-parted   (22)
22 (21) Stipes densely scaly throughout.   7 T. dubia
+ Stipes subglabrous throughout except at base   (23)
23 (22) Pinnae 5 pairs or more; base of basal pinnae asymmetrical; middle pinnae lanceolate, ca. 3 cm wide, pinnate-lacerate.   21 T. phaeocaulis
+ Pinnae 4-6 pairs; base of basal pinnae symmetrical; middle pinnae triangular, ca. 8 cm wide, pinnatipartite.   34 T. yunnanensis
24 (13) Stipes winged at least at apex   (25)
+ Stipes not winged   (26)
25 (24) Stipes winged almost throughout, almost to base; lateral pinnae without gemmae.   33 T. vasta
+ Stipes winged at apex at most up to middle; lateral pinnae gemmate or not.   9 T. fauriei
26 (24) Lamina pinnatifid at apex, different from basiscopic pairs   (27)
+ Terminal pinna lanceolate or elliptic, separate, simple or trifurcate, similar to basiscopic pairs   (29)
27 (26) Stipes and rachises castaneous to dark brown, slightly glossy.   25 T. rockii
+ Stipes and rachises stramineous, dull   (28)
28 (27) Rhizome long creeping; sori well distributed over pinnae.   31 T. subtriphylla
+ Rhizome short, ascending or erect; sori only near margins.   12 T. grossedentata
29 (26) Rhizome long creeping; pinnae never forked   (30)
+ Rhizome short, ascending or erect; pinnae usually forked   (31)
30 (29) Rhizome scales dark brown; stipes hairy; terminal pinna bases cuneate; lateral pinna bases asymmetrical.   14 T. herpetocaulos
+ Rhizome scales light brown; stipes glabrous; terminal pinna bases decurrent; lateral pinna bases symmetrical.   32 T. variabilis
31 (29) Lamina once pinnate (basal pinnae forked)   (32)
+ Lamina twice pinnate   (33)
32 (31) Base of terminal pinna rounded or cordate.   22 T. polymorpha
+ Base of terminal pinna decurrent.   23 T. quinquefida
33 (31) Stipes and rachis stramineous to light brown, dull.   19 T. luchunensis
+ Stipes and rachises brown or deep castaneous to black, glossy   (34)
34 (33) Stipes and rachis deep castaneous to black; sori exindusiate.   28 T. simonsii
+ Stipes and rachis dark brown to deep castaneous, never black; sori indusiate.   20 T. media

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