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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 17 | Lamiaceae

3. Teucrium Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 562. 1753.

香科科属 xiang ke ke shu

Herbs or subshrubs, with rhizomes or stolons. Stems erect or ascending, simple or branched from base. Leaves simple, petiolate or subsessile, cordate to lanceolate, penniveined. Verticillasters 2-6-flowered, in false spikes, terminal racemes, or panicles of racemes; bracts rhombic-ovate to linear-lanceolate, margin entire or dentate. Calyx 10-veined, throat glabrous to pilose annulate; tube tubular to campanulate, swollen in front at base; limb equally 5-toothed to 2-lipped, upper lip 3-toothed, lower lip 2-toothed. Corolla 1-lipped; tube included or exserted, not hairy annulate inside; limb 5-lobed, with middle lobe circular or spatulate, occasionally 2-lobulate; lateral lobes 4, small. Stamens 4, anterior 2 slightly longer, all exserted from posterior sinus of corolla; anther cells divaricate. Ovary globose. Style equal to or slightly longer than stamens, equally or subequally 2-cleft at apex. Nutlets obovoid, glabrous, smooth to netted, areole ca. 1/2 as long as nutlet.

Approximately 260 species: worldwide, but abundant in the Mediterranean region; 18 species in China.

1 Verticillasters 2-6-flowered, without bracts, inserted on all parts of stem and branches; calyx with 5 subequal teeth, not 2-lipped; posterior sinus of corolla narrow so that the corolla appears inconspicuously 1-lipped.   (2)
+ Verticillasters 2-flowered, bracteate, in terminal false spikes; calyx ± 2-lipped; posterior sinus of corolla broad so that the corolla appears conspicuously 1-lipped.   (3)
2 (1) Plants lanate-villous, hairs 1-1.5 mm; basal leaves subsessile, rounded to broadly cuneate at base, 3-6-crenate to coarsely 3-6-serrate on each margin   1 Teucrium scordium
+ Plants densely lanate-villous, hairs to 2 mm; basal leaves sessile, auriculate-amplexicaul to rounded at base, 5-12-crenate on each margin   2 Teucrium scordioides
3 (1) Calyx 2-lipped; stamens much exserted, ca. 2 × as long as corolla tube.   (4)
+ Calyx inconspicuously to conspicuously 2-lipped; stamens slightly exserted to much exserted, ca. 2 × as long as corolla tube.   (6)
4 (3) Leaves ovate-lanceolate, caudate-acuminate at apex, entire   18 Teucrium integrifolium
+ Leaves ovate, ovate-lanceolate, to lanceolate, coarsely serrate.   (5)
5 (4) Lower lip of calyx 2-toothed to base; posterior-lateral lobes of corolla limb obliquely triangular-ovate; plants densely, retrorsely white puberulent   16 Teucrium pernyi
+ Lower lip of calyx 2-toothed less than 1/3 its length; posterior-lateral lobes of corolla limb subcircular; plants subglabrous   17 Teucrium bidentatum
6 (3) Verticillasters in cylindric false spikes; calyx inconspicuously 2-lipped, throat glabrous inside; corolla tube slightly exserted; nutlets not netted.   (7)
+ Verticillasters in dorsiventrally flattened false spikes; calyx conspicuously 2-lipped, throat pilose annulate inside; corolla tube exserted more than 2 × longer than calyx tube; nutlets netted.   (12)
7 (6) Corolla 1 cm or less when open, tube ca. 1/2 as long to as long as limb, middle lobe of limb small, subcircular or circular; petiole ca. 1/4 as long as blade.   (8)
+ Corolla 1.1-1.5 cm when open, tube 1/3 to 1/2 as long as limb, middle lobe of limb largest, rhombic-obovate, subcircular, or obovate-orbicular; petiole ca. 1/5 as long as blade.   (9)
8 (7) Leaves circular to ovate-triangular; bracts 3-lobed; false spikes composed of widely spaced verticillasters   3 Teucrium veronicoides
+ Leaves ovate to ovate-oblong; bracts entire; false spikes composed of closely spaced verticillasters   4 Teucrium viscidum
9 (7) Calyx nearly 2-lipped, teeth with conspicuously netted veins; false spikes composed of 2-4-flowered verticillasters; leaves thick, adaxially ± corrugate; petiole and stems densely white lanate   8 Teucrium ussuriense
+ Calyx with 5 equal or subequal teeth, when subequal the lower 2 teeth as long as but narrower than upper 3, all inconspicuously veined; false spikes composed of 2-flowered verticillasters; leaves papery; petiole and stems variously hairy (white lanate only in T. japonicum var. tsungmingense).   (10)
10 (9) Stems spreading white or yellowish villous, hairs 1.5-3 mm.   (11)
+ Stems subglabrous or covered with small hooked hairs or white lanate but without spreading villous hairs   5 Teucrium japonicum
11 (10) Calyx densely villous outside   7 Teucrium pilosum
+ Calyx glabrous or pilose only on veins, when pilose calyx purplish   6 Teucrium tsinlingense
12 (6) False spikes terminal on apical 2/3 of stems and branches, in panicles; corolla limb projected at an obtuse angle to tube; stems covered with golden yellow, rusty brown, or purple villous or strigose hairs, hairs to 2.5 mm   9 Teucrium quadrifarium
+ False spikes terminal on stems and branches, composed of widely spaced verticillasters, not in panicles; corolla limb projected at a right angle to tube; stems covered with hairs not as above.   (13)
13 (12) Corolla 1.8-1.9 cm, limb as long as tube, tube ca. 2 × as long as calyx tube; leaves ovate-lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate, to ovate-oblong.   (14)
+ Corolla 1.2-1.6 cm, limb 1.5-2 × as long as tube, tube less than 2 × as long as calyx tube; leaves ovate to obovate, sometimes oblong or elliptic.   (16)
14 (13) Bracts ovate; stems covered with small, purple, hooked hairs; corolla tube ca. 8 × 1.2 mm, limb to 1.2 cm   15 Teucrium labiosum
+ Bracts ovate-lanceolate, lanceolate, to linear-lanceolate.   (15)
15 (14) Stems spreading villous; corolla tube ca. 9 mm, ca. 1.5 mm wide at middle; teeth of lower calyx lip subulate to caudate-acuminate at apex   14 Teucrium simplex
+ Stems subglabrous; corolla tube ca. 7 × 2 mm; teeth of lower calyx lip lanceolate, short acuminate at apex   13 Teucrium omeiense
16 (13) Bracts oblong-lanceolate to obovate-lanceolate; stems scabrid-villous; plants less than 25 cm   10 Teucrium nanum
+ Bracts oblong to subcircular; stems subglabrous or with small hooked hairs or villous; plants more than 35 cm.   (17)
17 (16) Stems slender and twisted; bracts oblong to subcircular; corolla limb nearly 2 × as long as tube; leaves ovate to obovate, 1.2-3.8 × 0.8-2.2 cm, apex rounded to obtuse; petiole 3-9 cm   11 Teucrium anlungense
+ Stems erect; bracts ovate; corolla limb slightly longer than tube; leaves ovate to oblong, 3-6(-11) × 1.5-4.5 cm, apex acute; petiole 1-2.5 cm   12 Teucrium manghuaense

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