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20. Trigonotis Steven, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou. 24(1): 603. 1851.

附地菜属 fu di cai shu

Herbs perennial, biennial, or rarely annual. Stems single or several and cespitose, erect to diffuse, hispid or pilose, rarely glabrous. Cymes solitary or dichotomously branched, ebracteate or lower pedicels bracteate, rarely all bracteate (flowers extra-axillary). Calyx 5-lobed or 5-parted, not enlarged or slightly enlarged in fruit. Corolla blue or white; tube usually shorter than calyx; throat appendages 4, lunate or trapeziform; lobes 5, spreading, overlapping. Stamens included; anthers oblong to elliptic. Ovary 4-parted. Style linear, usually shorter than corolla tube; stigma included, capitate. Gynobase flat. Nutlets 4, semiglobose-tetrahedral or subulate trigonous-tetrahedral, shiny, glabrous or pubescent, rarely tuberculate, adaxial 3 surfaces subequal in size or bottom smaller than 2 lateral surfaces, longitudinal vein at juncture of 2 lateral surfaces, sessile or with a short carpophore from corner of 3 adaxial surfaces, abaxial surfaces flattened or convex, acute or obtuse ribbed, rarely narrow winged; attachment scar at bottom of carpophore or at corner of 3 adaxial surfaces when sessile. Embryo vertical; cotyledon ovate.

About 58 species: Asia, E Europe; 39 species in China, of which 34 are endemic.


1 Nutlets semiglobose-tetrahedral.   (2)
+ Nutlets trigonous-tetrahedral, inverted to oblique, subulate.   (14)
       
2 (1) Nutlet tuberculate, adaxially crustaceously obtuse ribbed.   (3)
+ Nutlet smooth, glabrous, shiny, neither tuberculate nor ribbed.   (7)
       
3 (2) Corolla white; bracts present on lowermost 1 or 2 flowers of inflorescences   12 Trigonotis nandanensis
+ Corolla blue to purple; bracts absent.   (4)
       
4 (3) Inflorescences sessile   11 Trigonotis macrophylla
+ Inflorescences conspicuously pedunculate.   (5)
       
5 (4) Peduncle 1-4 cm; leaf blade lanceolate, densely strigose   8 Trigonotis compressa
+ Peduncle to 1 cm; leaf blade broadly ovate to elliptic or orbicular, sparsely strigose.   (6)
       
6 (5) Leaf blade ovate to broadly elliptic, apex obtuse to emarginate; calyx lobes oblanceolate; corolla 3.5-4 mm wide   9 Trigonotis mairei
+ Leaf blade orbicular to broadly elliptic, apex retuse, mucronate; calyx lobes narrowly ovate; corolla 5-6 mm wide   10 Trigonotis orbicularifolia
       
7 (2) Corolla appressed puberulent; leaf blade to 6 cm; lateral veins prominent adaxially   13 Trigonotis heliotropifolia
+ Corolla glabrous; leaf blade less than 5 cm; lateral veins not prominent.   (8)
       
8 (7) Inflorescences bracteate throughout; pedicel twisted or recurved   1 Trigonotis delicatula
+ Inflorescences ebracteate or only lower half or lowermost 2 or 3 flowers bracteate; pedicel usually ascending.   (9)
       
9 (8) Plants gray-white villous.   (10)
+ Plants hispid.   (11)
       
10 (9) Leaf blade broadly ovate to rotund; corolla limb ca. 2.5 mm wide; calyx lobes obtuse at apex; stipe of nutlet straight   6 Trigonotis mollis
+ Leaf blade narrowly elliptic; corolla limb 5-6 mm wide; calyx lobes acuminate at apex; stipe of nutlet curved   7 Trigonotis vestita
       
11 (9) Corolla limb ca. 7 mm wide; leaf blade orbicular to reniform; nutlet ± sessile   2 Trigonotis rotundata
+ Corolla limb 4-6 mm wide; leaf blade oblong to elliptic; stipe of nutlet 0.2-0.3 mm.   (12)
       
12 (11) Stems densely gray hispid; leaves sessile; corolla 5-6 mm wide   5 Trigonotis barkamensis
+ Stems sparsely hispid or minutely strigose; leaves petiolate; corolla 3.5-4 mm wide.   (13)
       
13 (12) Stems much branched at base, strigose; stem leaves oblong; inflorescences with leaflike bracts to middle; angle at inner surface of nutlet indistinct   3 Trigonotis corispermoides
+ Stems unbranched or with 1 lateral branch, minutely strigose; stem leaves narrowly ovate to elliptic; inflorescences with 1 or 2 basal bracts only; angle at inner surface of nutlet obtuse   4 Trigonotis chengkouensis
       
14 (1) Nutlets with adaxial 3 surfaces subequal in size, sessile, attachment scar basal, abaxial surfaces triangular; inflorescences ebracteate.   (15)
+ Nutlets with adaxial bottom surfaces and abaxial ones usually arcuate-convex, adaxial bottom surface smaller, 2 lateral surfaces equal in size; inflorescences bracteate at least basally.   (24)
       
15 (14) Leaf blade broadly ovate to broadly elliptic.   (16)
+ Leaf blade lanceolate to oblong.   (18)
       
16 (15) Stems with sterile branches to 75 cm; leaf blade elliptic to rotund; pedicel ca. as long as calyx   16 Trigonotis omeiensis
+ Stems without sterile branches; leaf blade broadly ovate to broadly lanceolate; pedicel 1-2 × as long as calyx.   (17)
       
17 (16) Calyx lobes broadly ovate, obtuse, ca. 2 mm; inflorescences dichotomously branched   14 Trigonotis cavaleriei
+ Calyx lobes oblanceolate, acute, 2-3 mm; inflorescences with cymes 2- or 3-fascicled   39 Trigonotis funingensis
       
18 (15) Corolla white.   (19)
+ Corolla blue.   (20)
       
19 (18) Corolla 5-6 mm wide; calyx lobes lanceolate, apex acute; pedicel 3-7 mm   19 Trigonotis nankotaizanensis
+ Corolla 4-5 mm wide; calyx lobes obovate-spatulate, apex obtuse; pedicel 1-3 mm   18 Trigonotis elevatovenosa
       
20 (18) Corolla deep blue   15 Trigonotis leyeensis
+ Corolla light blue.   (21)
       
21 (20) Plants with runners   17 Trigonotis formosana
+ Plants without runners.   (22)
       
22 (21) Leaf blade lanceolate, apex acuminate; middle and upper stem leaves ± sessile; pedicel 5-6 mm; nutlets abaxially slightly convex, acutely 3-ribbed   20 Trigonotis giraldii
+ Leaf blade elliptic to elliptic-ovate, apex obtuse to acute; middle and upper stem leaves short petiolate; pedicel 2-4 mm; nutlets abaxially flattened or slightly concave, narrowly ribbed or winged.   (23)
       
23 (22) Nutlet cluster fastigiate, acute; corolla (2-)4-5 mm wide   22 Trigonotis laxa
+ Nutlet cluster cross-shaped; corolla 2-2.5 mm wide   21 Trigonotis floribunda
       
24 (14) Inflorescences bracteate.   (25)
+ Inflorescences bracteate only at base.   (26)
       
25 (24) Stems single, erect to spreading, without runners; nutlets glabrous, ca. 1 mm   23 Trigonotis bracteata
+ Stems usually cespitose, erect becoming creeping; nutlets pubescent, ca. 2 mm   24 Trigonotis radicans
       
26 (24) Plants annual or biennial; corolla white or light blue.   (27)
+ Plants perennial, rarely ?biennial; corolla blue or purple.   (28)
       
27 (26) Corolla white or light blue, ca. 3 mm wide; carpophore of nutlet curved   37 Trigonotis tibetica
+ Corolla white, ca. 4 mm wide; carpophore absent   38 Trigonotis leucantha
       
28 (26) Junction of calyx tube with pedicel distinctly thickened, clavate in fruit   36 Trigonotis peduncularis
+ Junction of calyx tube and pedicel not clavate.   (29)
       
29 (28) Corolla 7-8 mm wide   35 Trigonotis rockii
+ Corolla not exceeding 6 mm wide.   (30)
       
30 (29) Nutlet ca. 2 mm, without carpophore; corolla ca. 6 mm wide   25 Trigonotis myosotidea
+ Nutlet 1-1.3 mm, with or without carpophore; corolla 3-5 mm wide.   (31)
       
31 (30) Plants cespitose, ca. 20 cm.   (32)
+ Plants not cespitose, 20-60 cm.   (34)
       
32 (31) Corolla 1.7-2.2 mm wide   28 Trigonotis harrysmithii
+ Corolla ca. 3 mm wide.   (33)
       
33 (32) Leaf blade cordate to orbicular-ovate, apex acute; calyx lobes lanceolate; stipes of nutlets ± straight to ± curved   26 Trigonotis tenera
+ Leaf blade oblong to rotund, apex rounded, mucronate; calyx lobes ovate; stipes of nutlets distinctly curved, short   27 Trigonotis petiolaris
       
34 (31) Stems gray strigose; leaves subleathery   34 Trigonotis cinereifolia
+ Stems green strigose; leaves herbaceous.   (35)
       
35 (34) Corolla purple; fruiting pedicel 0.9-1.6 cm; stems branched from base upward   29 Trigonotis longipes
+ Corolla bluish; fruiting pedicel to 1 cm, if longer then stems simple or branched near base only.   (36)
       
36 (35) Fruiting pedicel to 2 cm   30 Trigonotis gracilipes
+ Fruiting pedicel to 0.8 cm.   (37)
       
37 (36) Nutlets ca. 1.2 mm; lateral leaf veins indistinct   31 Trigonotis muliensis
+ Nutlets ca. 1 mm; lateral leaf veins distinct at least adaxially.   (38)
       
38 (37) Lateral leaf veins 3 pairs, prominent, strigose abaxially; branches short   32 Trigonotis microcarpa
+ Lateral leaf veins 2 pairs, visible abaxially, scarcely prominent, pubescent; branches elongated   33 Trigonotis longiramosa

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