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7. Tripterospermum Blume, Bijdr. 849. 1826.

双蝴蝶属 shuang hu die shu

Perennials. Stems elongated and twining or prostrate and creeping, rarely erect in some individuals. Leaves opposite. Inflorescences axillary and terminal, 1-flowered or in cymes. Flowers 5-merous. Calyx tube usually with 5 keeled ridges. Corolla tubular or broadly tubular, plicae present. Stamens inserted at basal part of corolla tube, unequal, apically recurved. Nectaries conspicuously developed, forming a collarlike disc surrounding base of ovary. Ovary 1-locular; ovules many. Style slender, slightly recurved; stigma linear, recurved at anthesis. Fruit a capsule or berry, many seeded. Seeds triquetrous to compressed, winged or wingless.

About 25 species: E and S Asia; 19 species in China.

Some species of Tripterospermum are very similar in flower, and fruit with seeds may be necessary for positive identification.

1 Gynophore somewhat shorter to almost as long as ovary at anthesis, distinctly elongated in fruit; corolla persistent in fruit.   (2)
+ Gynophore distinctly shorter than ovary at anthesis and in fruit; corolla not persistent or at least withered in fruit.   (7)
2 (1) Fruit a capsule.   (3)
+ Fruit a berry.   (4)
3 (2) Calyx lobes 2-4 mm, tube wingless or narrowly winged; petiole 3-10 mm; leaf blade membranous   2 Tripterospermum discoideum
+ Calyx lobes 6-9 mm, tube with 5 keeled ridges; leaves sessile or subsessile; leaf blade herbaceous   3 Tripterospermum chinense
4 (2) Corolla white; seeds distinctly winged   6 Tripterospermum volubile
+ Corolla pale yellow, pink, blue, violet, or purple (occasionally white in T. lanceolatum); seeds obscurely winged or wingless (unknown in T. filicaule).   (5)
5 (4) Anthers ca. 1.5 mm; leaf blade usually ovate   7 Tripterospermum filicaule
+ Anthers 1-1.2 mm; leaf blade usually lanceolate, occasionally narrowly ovate.   (6)
6 (5) Calyx tube narrowly winged; fruit exserted from corolla   5 Tripterospermum lanceolatum
+ Calyx tube wingless; fruit included in corolla   8 Tripterospermum pingbianense
7 (1) Stems trailing and rooting at nodes, not twining; leaf blade ovate to cordate (usually lanceolate to ovate in T. microphyllum).   (8)
+ Stems twining; leaf blade lanceolate to ovate.   (10)
8 (7) Leaf blade base rounded to truncate; corolla less than 3.5 cm   9 Tripterospermum microphyllum
+ Leaf blade base of larger leaves cordate; corolla over 3.5 cm.   (9)
9 (8) Calyx lobes linear to oblanceolate; gynophore of mature fruit 4-7 mm; pistil exserted from corolla   10 Tripterospermum cordifolium
+ Calyx lobes linear-subulate to lanceolate; fruit scarcely stipitate; pistil included in corolla   11 Tripterospermum cordifolioides
10 (7) Fruit a capsule   1 Tripterospermum coeruleum
+ Fruit a berry.   (11)
11 (10) Calyx tube cylindric, with puberulent and/or scabrous-ciliate ridges; lobes shorter than tube   16 Tripterospermum hirticalyx
+ Calyx tube campanulate, smooth or with nonciliate ridges; lobes usually longer than tube.   (12)
12 (11) Corolla white, greenish white, or pale yellow, at most tinged with purple.   (13)
+ Corolla distinctly rose-violet, blue, or purple.   (15)
13 (12) Bracts ovate to triangular; ovary distinctly longer than calyx tube   14 Tripterospermum taiwanense
+ Bracts lanceolate; ovary as long as calyx tube.   (14)
14 (13) Calyx lobes linear to linear-lanceolate; corolla plicae semiorbicular; seeds narrowly winged   12 Tripterospermum pallidum
+ Calyx lobes lanceolate; corolla plicae ovate to triangular; seeds wingless   15 Tripterospermum alutaceifolium
15 (12) Fruit subglobose; corolla 1.8-3.2 cm   4 Tripterospermum luzonense
+ Fruit ellipsoid; corolla 3.3-5 cm.   (16)
16 (15) Ovary about as long as calyx tube.   (17)
+ Ovary distinctly longer than calyx tube.   (18)
17 (16) Peduncle with scalelike or subulate bracts; calyx lobes arcuate spreading   13 Tripterospermum australe
+ Peduncle with leafy bracts; calyx lobes ascending or recurved only near tip   17 Tripterospermum cordatum
18 (16) Corolla dark violet-blue; leaves thicker than membranous   18 Tripterospermum nienkui
+ Corolla rose-violet; leaf blade membranous   19 Tripterospermum membranaceum

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