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21. Vaccinium Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 349. 1753.

越桔属 yue ju shu

Fang Ruizheng (方瑞征 Fang Rhui-cheng); Peter F. Stevens

Shrubs or small trees, terrestrial or epiphytic. Leaves evergreen or deciduous, rarely pseudoverticillate, petiolate, margin entire or serrate. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, racemose, fasciculate, or solitary flowers. Bracts and bracteoles persistent or caducous, the latter small, basal, rarely apical; pedicel expanded towards apex or not, articulate, rarely continuous. Flowers 5-, rarely 4-merous. Calyx limb lobed or toothed. Corolla urceolate, campanulate, or tubular, lobed or toothed, usually to base of limb; lobes erect or recurved, mostly shorter than tube, rarely longer or petals apparently free. Stamens rarely 4, usually included; anthers with 2 spurs at anther-filament junction or not; thecae with tubules opening by a terminal pore or introrse slit. Disk annular. Ovary inferior, usually 8- or 10-pseudoloculed by false partitions; locule with many ovules; stigma inconspicuous, truncate. Fruit a several seeded globose berry. Seeds ovoid, small, testa hard or mucilaginous.

About 450 species: throughout the N hemisphere, also in the mountains of tropical Asia and Central and South America, a few species in Africa and Madagascar; 92 species (51 endemic) in China.

The limits of Vaccinium are very uncertain. Recent molecular work, supported by morphology and anatomy, suggests that it is likely that the majority of Chinese species, i.e., those with 10-pseudoloculed ovaries, form part of the same lineage as Agapetes.

Vaccinium cavaleriei H. Léveillé & Vaniot is a synonym of Schoepfia jasminodora Siebold & Zuccarini var. jasminodora in the Olacaceae (see Fl. China 5: 203. 2003).


1 Flowers 4-merous; corolla divided nearly to base, recurved; anthers without spurs.   (2)
+ Flowers 5-merous, rarely 4-merous; corolla at most divided to middle; anthers usually with spurs, or spur absent or minute (flowers unknown in V. bullatum, V. foetidissimum, V. glaucophyllum, V. guangdongense, V. lamprophyllum, and V. podocarpoideum).   (4)
       
2 (1) Flowers solitary, axillary; pedicels slender, not articulate; plant a deciduous, erect shrub.   92 Vaccinium japonicum
+ Flowers 1–4 together at ends of twigs; pedicels filiform, articulate; plant an evergreen, creeping, low shrub.   (3)
       
3 (2) Leaf blade 5–11 × 2–5 mm; pedicel pubescent; berry ca. 1 cm in diam.; stems 10–15(–80) cm.   90 Vaccinium oxycoccus
+ Leaf blade 2–6 × 1–2(–3) mm; pedicel glabrous; berry ca. 6 mm in diam.; stems 5–10 cm.   91 Vaccinium microcarpum
       
4 (1) Leaves deciduous; pedicels articulate or not.   (5)
+ Leaves evergreen; pedicels articulate.   (10)
       
5 (4) Pedicel articulate; anthers not spurred; berry 10-pseudoloculed.   (6)
+ Pedicel not articulate; anthers with spurs; berry 5-loculed.   (8)
       
6 (5) Leaf margin denticulate, not hairy; mature berry red, 5-angled.   86 Vaccinium koreanum
+ Leaf margin denticulate or entire, ciliate; mature berry dark purple, smooth.   (7)
       
7 (6) Flowers solitary, axillary; leaf margin entire, ciliate.   84 Vaccinium henryi
+ Raceme terminal; leaf margin denticulate, teeth apically glandular setulose.   85 Vaccinium oldhamii
       
8 (5) Leaf margin serrulate; flowers at base of shrub, solitary, axillary; pedicels 2.5–3.5 mm.   89 Vaccinium myrtillus
+ Leaf margin entire; flowers in ± terminal fascicles, 1–3 together; pedicels 0.5–4.5 cm.   (9)
       
9 (8) Flowers 1–3; pedicels 0.5–1 cm; bracteoles subbasal, less than 3 mm.   87 Vaccinium uliginosum
+ Flowers solitary; pedicels 2.5–4.5 cm; bracteoles near calyx, 7–12 × 4–9 mm.   88 Vaccinium modestum
       
10 (4) Leaf blade with plane, serrate margins.   (11)
+ Leaf blade recurved, margins entire, serrulate, or with basal glands.   (12)
       
11 (10) Leaf apex rounded, mucronulate.   75 Vaccinium sikkimense
+ Leaf apex acuminate.   32 Vaccinium carlesii
       
12 (10) Flowers in terminal or pseudoterminal racemes, rarely also axillary; anthers usually with 2 spurs.   (13)
+ Flowers solitary or in axillary racemes; anthers with spurs or not.   (21)
       
13 (12) Leaf blade 2–7 × 0.9–2.7 cm; bracts (0.7–)1–2 cm; anthers with 2 erect spurs.   (14)
+ Leaf blade 0.4–2.6 × 0.3–1.2 cm; bracts 3–6(–9) mm; anthers without spurs or with 2 spreading spurs.   (15)
       
14 (13) Leaf blade glandular denticulate at margin, 2.5–5 × 1.2–2.7 cm; inflorescence 1–2 cm.   75 Vaccinium sikkimense
+ Leaf blade entire at margin, elliptic or obovate, 2–2.5 × 0.9–1.4 cm; inflorescence 3–5 cm.   83 Vaccinium retusum
       
15 (13) Flowers 4-merous; anthers without spurs; leaf blade with appressed glandular hairs abaxially.   76 Vaccinium vitis-idaea
+ Flowers 5-merous; anthers with 2 spreading spurs; leaf blade glabrous abaxially.   (16)
       
16 (15) Twigs densely pubescent and mixed glandular setose.   (17)
+ Twigs only pubescent.   (19)
       
17 (16) Leaf blade obovate or oblong-obovate, base cuneate, apex rounded, retuse.   77 Vaccinium delavayi
+ Leaf blade ovate, suborbicular, or oblong, both ends rounded.   (18)
       
18 (17) Leaf blade 1–2.3 × 0.7–1.2 cm; corolla urceolate, white tinged with pink.   78 Vaccinium nummularia
+ Leaf blade 4–8 × 3–7 mm; corolla tubular-urceolate, white.   79 Vaccinium chaetothrix
       
19 (16) Leaf blade obovate or spatulate, apex rounded, retuse, base cuneate; inflorescence terminal.   82 Vaccinium dendrocharis
+ Leaf blade elliptic or oblong-elliptic or ± obovate, apex obtuse to rounded or obtuse-acuminate; inflorescences terminal and axillary.   (20)
       
20 (19) Leaf blade elliptic, obovate-elliptic, or obovate-oblong, 7–17 × 4–8 mm, apex obtuse to rounded, base cuneate.   80 Vaccinium moupinense
+ Leaf blade oblong-elliptic, 2.2–2.6 × 1–1.2 cm, apex obtuse-acuminate, base broadly cuneate.   81 Vaccinium haitangense
       
21 (12) Leaf margin entire, rarely glandular serrulate; corolla broadly campanulate to urceolate-campanulate, anthers with two distinct, rarely inconspicuous, spreading or erect spurs.   (22)
+ Leaf margin denticulate, crenulate, rarely entire or subentire; corolla urceolate or tubular, rarely campanulate; anthers with short spurs or not.   (60)
       
22 (21) Flowers solitary, or racemes to 2.5 cm, 1–6-flowered; leaf blade to 4 × 2 cm, apex emarginate to obtuse, rarely acute or acuminate; usually epiphytic.   (23)
+ Raceme usually 2.5 cm or longer, (3–)5–10(or more)-flowered, and/or leaf blade at least (1.5–)4 × (0.35–)2 cm, apex acute, acuminate, or caudate, rarely obtuse or emarginate; terrestrial.   (36)
       
23 (22) Inflorescence subcapitate, with several subpersistent, basal imbricate inflorescence bracts; leaf blade 8–11 × 3–4.5 cm, apex abruptly acuminate; branch and leaf blade densely setiferous.   60 Vaccinium lanigerum
+ Flowers solitary or in short racemes, without subpersistent basal inflorescence bracts; leaf blade to 4 × 2 cm, apex rounded, obtuse, or emarginate, rarely acute; plant not densely setiferous.   (24)
       
24 (23) Leaf apex rounded or acute.   (25)
+ Leaf apex ± emarginate.   (29)
       
25 (24) Leaf blade 2.5–3.8 × 1–2 cm, apex acute to abruptly acute; raceme pubescent and mixed glandular pilose.   61 Vaccinium cuspidifolium
+ Leaf blade to 3 × 1.4 cm, apex acute, rounded, or obtuse-acuminate; raceme glabrous or pubescent.   (26)
       
26 (25) Inflorescence very short, 1–3-flowered; pedicels ca. 1 mm, pubescent; corolla pale green.   65 Vaccinium brevipedicellatum
+ Inflorescence 0.6–2 cm, 3–6-flowered; pedicels 1–3 mm, glabrous; corolla white or red (unknown in V. lamprophyllum).   (27)
       
27 (26) Leaf blade oblong-obovate, 2–3 × 0.9–1.4 cm, apex acute; calyx lobes 2.5–3 mm, apex subulate.   62 Vaccinium lamprophyllum
+ Leaf blade obovate or broadly obovate, 0.8–2 × 0.6–1.1 cm, apex rounded; calyx lobes 1.5–2 mm, apex obtuse to acute.   (28)
       
28 (27) Corolla red, urceolate; calyx lobes ca. 1.5 mm, apex acute.   63 Vaccinium conchophyllum
+ Corolla white, campanulate; calyx lobes 1.5–2 mm, apex obtuse.   64 Vaccinium sinicum
       
29 (24) Pedicel and calyx hispid; flowers solitary or 2 or 3 together in short raceme.   (30)
+ Pedicel and calyx glabrous, pubescent or puberulous; flowers 1–6 in long to short racemes.   (31)
       
30 (29) Flowers 2 or 3; calyx lobes lanceolate-subulate, 4–5 mm.   66 Vaccinium craspedotum
+ Flowers 1 or 2; calyx lobes triangular-ovate, ca. 2 mm.   67 Vaccinium sciaphilum
       
31 (29) Pedicels 0.5–1 cm, glabrous; inflorescences 1–2.5 cm.   (32)
+ Pedicels 3–5(–9) mm, pilose or glabrous; inflorescence to 5 mm.   (33)
       
32 (31) Leaf blade elliptic, 1.5–2.6 × 0.9–1.2 cm; filaments 0.5–1 mm, tubules ca. 3 × as long as thecae.   68 Vaccinium papillatum
+ Leaf blade obovate-elliptic, 2.5–3(–5) × 1–2 cm; filaments ca. 2 mm, tubules ca. 2 × as long as thecae.   69 Vaccinium emarginatum
       
33 (31) Flowers 1 or 2; calyx lobes ciliolate and usually glandular along margin.   73 Vaccinium pseudotonkinense
+ Flowers (1 or)2 or 3(–5); calyx lobes glabrous or ciliate along margin.   (34)
       
34 (33) Leaf blade glaucous abaxially; pedicels 3–5 mm, pedicel and calyx glabrous or villous.   70 Vaccinium chengiae
+ Leaf blade not glaucous abaxially; pedicels 6–9 mm, pedicel and calyx pubescent, pilose, or glabrous.   (35)
       
35 (34) Leaf blade oblong-obovate; inflorescence 1- or 2-flowered; pedicels thickening upwards; corolla white.   71 Vaccinium saxicola
+ Leaf blade elliptic; inflorescence (1- or)2- or 3(–5)-flowered; pedicels hardly thickening upwards; corolla red.   72 Vaccinium triflorum
       
36 (22) Leaf blade with ± glandular serrulate or entire margin, abaxially glaucous, sparsely glandular setose on midvein.   (37)
+ Leaf blade with entire margin, abaxially rarely glaucous, but glabrous or punctate or brownish appressed-headed hairy, rarely strigose on midvein.   (38)
       
37 (36) Leaf blade 4–6 × 2–4 cm, margin densely glandular serrulate; pedicels 3–5 mm; bracts leaflike, broadly elliptic, 1–2 cm.   1 Vaccinium glaucoalbum
+ Leaf blade 7–13 × 4–6.5 cm, margin sparsely glandular setose or entire; pedicels 4–12 mm; bracts elliptic, ca. 1.2 cm.   2 Vaccinium gaultheriifolium
       
38 (36) Leaf apex obtuse or emarginate.   (39)
+ Leaf apex acute, acuminate, or caudate.   (40)
       
39 (38) Raceme many flowered; pedicels 1–1.5 mm; calyx lobes ca. 1 mm; corolla ca. 3.5 mm; leaf apex obtuse.   3 Vaccinium cavinerve
+ Raceme 3-flowered; pedicels 10–17 mm; calyx lobes 4–6 mm; corolla ca. 1.2 cm; leaf apex emarginate or obtuse.   4 Vaccinium impressinerve
       
40 (38) Leaf blade 1.5–7 × 0.35–2 cm, apex acute or shortly acuminate; secondary veins 3–5-paired.   (41)
+ Leaf blade larger, apex acuminate, caudate or abruptly acuminate; secondary veins 6–12-paired, rarely 3- or 4-paired.   (45)
       
41 (40) Leaf base cuneate-attenuate; twigs glabrous or puberulous.   (42)
+ Leaf base broadly cuneate to obtuse; twigs pubescent.   (43)
       
42 (41) Leaf blade linear-oblanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 3.5–8 mm wide.   5 Vaccinium podocarpoideum
+ Leaf blade oblanceolate or oblanceolate-ovate, 10–22 mm wide.   6 Vaccinium foetidissimum
       
43 (41) Inflorescence from uppermost axil; leaf blade glaucous adaxially.   7 Vaccinium glaucophyllum
+ Inflorescence from uppermost and lower axils; leaf blade not glaucous adaxially.   (44)
       
44 (43) Inflorescence 2.5–3 cm; calyx lobes ca. 1 mm; corolla urceolate, 4–5 mm.   8 Vaccinium omeiense
+ Inflorescence 4.5–6.5 cm; calyx lobes 2.5–3 mm; corolla campanulate, 6–7 mm.   9 Vaccinium pratense
       
45 (40) Inflorescence pubescent, tomentose, or shortly glandular hairy; twigs with hairs or not.   (46)
+ Inflorescence and sometimes also twig glabrous.   (51)
       
46 (45) Inflorescence shorter than leaves, 1.5–3 cm; leaf blade with appressed glandular hairs abaxially; pedicels 1–2(–3) mm.   (47)
+ Inflorescences ca. as long as leaves, 3–8 cm; leaf blade glabrous or sparsely pubescent abaxially; pedicels 2–14 mm.   (48)
       
47 (46) Rachis and pedicels densely tomentellate; berry densely hairy.   18 Vaccinium arbutoides
+ Rachis and pedicels glandular pubescent; berry glabrous.   19 Vaccinium brachyandrum
       
48 (46) Leaf blade lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, ca. 3 × as long as broad, base cuneate-attenuate, glabrous; pedicel 10–14 mm.   20 Vaccinium kachinense
+ Leaf blade ovate-cordate, ovate, or oblong, ca. 2.5 × as long as broad, base obtuse to shallowly cordate, abaxially subglabrous or pubescent; pedicel 2–8 mm.   (49)
       
49 (48) Leaf blade ovate-cordate, base cordate, sometimes auriculate or obtuse; inflorescence densely pubescent.   21 Vaccinium pseudospadiceum
+ Leaf blade ovate or oblong, base rounded, rarely shallowly cordate; inflorescence glabrous or puberulous, rarely densely pubescent.   (50)
       
50 (49) Inflorescence 3–5 cm; pedicels 2–6 mm; leaf veins raised adaxially.   22 Vaccinium urceolatum
+ Inflorescence 5–8 cm; pedicels 6–9 mm; leaf veins distinctly impressed adaxially.   23 Vaccinium bullatum
       
51 (45) Inflorescence longer than or subequal to leaves.   (52)
+ Inflorescence shorter than leaves.   (54)
       
52 (51) Leaf blade rounded to subcordate at base, veins impressed adaxially, blade 9–19 × 2.5–5.5 cm.   10 Vaccinium dunnianum
+ Leaf blade cuneate to broadly cuneate at base, veins distinctly raised or not distinctly raised adaxially, blade 3–12 × 2–3.2 cm.   (53)
       
53 (52) Leaf blade oblong-lanceolate, 6–12 × 2–3.2 cm; corolla white; veins raised on both surfaces.   11 Vaccinium crassivenium
+ Leaf blade obovate to elliptic, 3–4(–7) × 1.2–2(–4) cm; corolla green, purple tinged; veins raised abaxially only.   12 Vaccinium supracostatum
       
54 (51) Leaf margin lacking glands at base.   22 Vaccinium urceolatum
+ Leaf margin with gland(s) at base.   (55)
       
55 (54) Leaf blade (4–)5–8(–10) × 3–4(–5) cm, abaxially glabrous or with appressed glandular hairs.   (56)
+ Leaf blade 10–21 × 4–9 cm, abaxially with appressed glandular hairs.   (58)
       
56 (55) Leaf blade ovate, broadly ovate, or suborbicular, abaxially papillate, with short fulvous hairs.   17 Vaccinium chunii
+ Leaf blade elliptic or ovate-oblong, abaxially smooth, whether or not glandular hairy.   (57)
       
57 (56) Leaf margin with two glands per side at base; petiole 2–3 mm.   16 Vaccinium pseudorobustum
+ Leaf margin with one gland per side at base; petiole at least 5 mm.   15 Vaccinium dunalianum
       
58 (55) Leaf blade elliptic or ovate, bullate, veins distinctly impressed adaxially, raised abaxially.   13 Vaccinium pseudobullatum
+ Leaf blade oblong, oblong-lanceolate, or narrowly ovate, smooth, veins inconspicuously raised on both surfaces.   (59)
       
59 (58) Leaf base rounded to shallowly cordate; petioles 3–6 mm; inflorescence 1.5–3 cm; pedicels 9–12 mm.   14 Vaccinium petelotii
+ Leaf base cuneate to obtuse; petioles 5–14 mm; inflorescence 3–7 cm; pedicels 5–8 mm.   15 Vaccinium dunalianum
       
60 (21) Leaves pseudoverticillate, rarely scattered; raceme elongate; calyx tube often with fleshy protuberances; twigs often with some conspicuous and subpersistent bud scales.   (61)
+ Leaves scattered; inflorescence various; calyx tube lacking fleshy protuberances; twigs without conspicuous and subpersistent bud scales.   (71)
       
61 (60) Leaf margin entire; twigs without conspicuous bud scales.   (62)
+ Leaf margin serrate; twigs with some conspicuous bud scales.   (63)
       
62 (61) Leaf blade ovate or elliptic, 6–15 × 2.5–7 cm; pedicels purple, slender; corolla white-green, urceolate-tubular; filaments subglabrous, anthers without spurs.   49 Vaccinium ardisioides
+ Leaf blade oblong-lanceolate or oblong-ovate, 7.5–12 × 2–4 cm; pedicels red, clavate; corolla orange or pink, tubular; filaments pubescent, anthers with 2 short spurs.   50 Vaccinium rubescens
       
63 (61) Leaves rather scattered.   (64)
+ Leaves 4–6(–10) together.   (66)
       
64 (63) Branch glabrous; leaf blade 12–18.5 × 3.5–9 cm; inflorescence 2–3.5 cm.   58 Vaccinium papulosum
+ Branch dark brownish hispid, sometimes glandular setose; leaf blade 2.5–6(–10) × 0.6–2(–4) cm; inflorescence 2–15 cm.   (65)
       
65 (64) Leaf blade lanceolate or oblanceolate, 2.5–4.5 × 0.6–1.7 cm; inflorescence 2–5 cm.   57 Vaccinium scopulorum
+ Leaf blade oblong, oblong-obovate, or oblong-lanceolate, 4.5–6(–10) × 1.5–4 cm; inflorescence 5–15 cm.   59 Vaccinium subdissitifolium
       
66 (63) Leaves small, 3.5–5(–7) × 0.9–3 cm; inflorescence 1.5–3(–6) cm.   (67)
+ Leaves large, 4–11(–14) × (0.9–)2–5 cm; inflorescence (2–)3.5–6 cm.   (68)
       
67 (66) Branch densely shortly setose; leaf blade oblong-lanceolate, base cuneate to narrowly rounded.   53 Vaccinium vacciniaceum
+ Branch densely puberulous and mixed setulose; leaf blade oblong or oblong-ovate, base rounded to slightly cordate.   55 Vaccinium leucobotrys
       
68 (66) Leaves 9 or 10 together; rachis, pedicel, and calyx tube densely pubescent.   54 Vaccinium tenuiflorum
+ Leaves 5 or 6 together; rachis, pedicel, and calyx tube glabrous.   (69)
       
69 (68) Leaf blade drying brownish below.   56 Vaccinium bulleyanum
+ Leaf blade drying blackish below.   (70)
       
70 (69) Leaf blade leathery.   51 Vaccinium venosum
+ Leaf blade papery.   52 Vaccinium kingdon-wardii
       
71 (60) Flowers solitary, 4-merous; leaf blade with 3–5 teeth on each side.   74 Vaccinium spiculatum
+ Flowers in racemes, 5-merous; leaf blade serrate, rarely entire.   (72)
       
72 (71) Bracts usually persistent, rarely caducous; anthers usually without or with very small spurs; leaf blade adaxially smooth, veins not impressed.   (73)
+ Bracts caducous or absent; anthers usually with short, or very short, spur, very rarely without spur; leaf blade with veins usually impressed adaxially.   (80)
       
73 (72) Leaf blade 4–11 × 1–2 cm, ca. 4 × as long as broad.   26 Vaccinium subfalcatum
+ Leaf blade (1.5–)2–6(–9) × (1–)1.5–3(–4) cm, to 3 × as long as broad.   (74)
       
74 (73) Inflorescence ± hairy.   (75)
+ Inflorescence glabrous.   (77)
       
75 (74) Inflorescence 2–3 × as long as leaves; rachis pubescent, bracts and calyx lobes fimbrillate, otherwise glabrous.   31 Vaccinium fimbribracteatum
+ Inflorescence shorter than or ca. as long as leaves; petiole, rachis, calyx, and corolla densely pubescent.   (76)
       
76 (75) Calyx limb not lobed, truncate; corolla purple; bract caducous.   29 Vaccinium truncatocalyx
+ Calyx limb with lobes; corolla white; bract persistent.   30 Vaccinium bracteatum
       
77 (74) Leaf blade ± lanceolate; fruit stalk ca. 2 mm (in V. randaiense, unknown in V. kengii).   (78)
+ Leaf blade ± elliptic, ovate, or oblong; fruit stalk 3–15 mm.   (79)
       
78 (77) Corolla tubular, 5.5–7.5 mm; pedicels ca. 2 mm; tubule of thecae ca. 3 mm, without spur.   24 Vaccinium randaiense
+ Corolla campanulate, ca. 5 mm; pedicels ca. 7 mm; tubule of thecae ca. 1 mm, with a short spur.   25 Vaccinium kengii
       
79 (77) Leaf blade obovate or oblong-elliptic, 4–6 × 2–3 cm, apex obtuse or abruptly acute, margin subentire; fruit stalk 3–5 mm.   27 Vaccinium hainanense
+ Leaf blade ovate, oblong, or rhombic-oblong, (1.5–)2–5 × (1–)1.5–2.5 cm, apex acute to acuminate, margin dentate; fruit stalk 10–15 mm.   28 Vaccinium wrightii
       
80 (72) Corolla campanulate; leaf blade with distant teeth or subentire.   (81)
+ Corolla urceolate or tubular; leaf margin distinctly serrate.   (82)
       
81 (80) Leaf blade 2–7 × 1–2.5 cm, base rounded or broadly cuneate, sometimes cuneate, margin distantly serrate; inflorescence less than 3.5 cm.   32 Vaccinium carlesii
+ Leaf blade 9–18 × 2–9 cm, base cuneate, margin subentire; inflorescence to 10 cm.   33 Vaccinium yaoshanicum
       
82 (80) Plant glabrous.   (83)
+ Inflorescence rachis, pedicel, and calyx, often also twig and petiole, ± hairy.   (86)
       
83 (82) Calyx lobes triangular-lanceolate, apex subulate, margin glandular fimbrillate; corolla 7–8 mm; inflorescence 4–10 cm; leaf blade 5.5–12.5 cm, apex falciform-acuminate.   34 Vaccinium harmandianum
+ Calyx lobes triangular or orbicular, apex acute or obtuse, sometimes ciliolate; corolla 6–7(–8) mm; inflorescence 1.5–8(–10) cm; leaf blade 3–9(–13) × 1.5–3.5 cm, apex acute to acuminate.   (84)
       
84 (83) Bracteoles ovate, apical; pedicels 0.5–2.5 mm; anther tubules ca. as long as thecae.   35 Vaccinium duclouxii
+ Bracteoles linear or lanceolate, sometimes ovate, median to basal; pedicels 1–8 mm; anther tubules longer than thecae.   (85)
       
85 (84) Bracteoles linear, ca. 1.5 mm; pedicels 1–2 mm; tubules 2–3 × as long as thecae.   36 Vaccinium brachybotrys
+ Bracteoles linear-lanceolate to ovate, 2–4 mm, pedicels 2–8 mm; tubules 1.5–2 × as long as thecae.   37 Vaccinium mandarinorum
       
86 (82) Twig densely or sparsely glandular setose.   (87)
+ Twig glabrous, puberulous, pubescent, or tomentose.   (89)
       
87 (86) Dwarf shrub, 20–50(–100) cm tall; leaf blade 1.2–3.5 × 0.7–2.5 cm; bract leaflike.   39 Vaccinium fragile
+ Shrub or small tree, 1–8 m tall; leaf blade 3–9 × 2–3.5 cm; bract not leaflike.   (88)
       
88 (87) Leaf blade glabrous or pubescent; bracts 5–7 mm.   35 Vaccinium duclouxii
+ Leaf blade glandular setose and hispidulous; bracts ca. 2.5 mm.   38 Vaccinium trichocladum
       
89 (86) Inflorescence distinctly shorter than leaves, pubescent or glabrous.   (90)
+ Inflorescence ca. as long as or longer than leaves, ± pubescent, sometimes subglabrous.   (93)
       
90 (89) Leaf margin entire; calyx lobes ciliolate; anthers without spurs, tubules ca. as long as thecae.   40 Vaccinium fimbricalyx
+ Leaf margin denticulate; calyx lobes glabrous; anthers with short spurs, tubules longer than thecae.   (91)
       
91 (90) Inflorescence glabrous; leaf blade elliptic-lanceolate, apex caudate-acuminate.   41 Vaccinium longicaudatum
+ Inflorescence usually hairy; leaf blade ovate, elliptic, or ovate-lanceolate, apex acute or caudate-acuminate.   (92)
       
92 (91) Leaf blade ovate or elliptic, 1.7–4(–6) × 1–2 cm, apex acute or obtuse to acuminate; twig densely pubescent; inflorescence subglabrous; small shrub, 0.5–2 m tall.   42 Vaccinium chamaebuxus
+ Leaf blade ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, 3–7 × 1.5–2.5 cm, apex acuminate or shortly caudate-acuminate; twig and inflorescence densely puberulous or pubescent; shrub or small tree, 1–6 m tall.   43 Vaccinium albidens
       
93 (89) Anthers without spurs or spurs inconspicuous; both surfaces of leaf blade drying pale fulvous or straw-colored.   48 Vaccinium exaristatum
+ Anthers with spurs (unknown in V. guangdongense); both surfaces of leaf blade drying brown or brown-green.   (94)
       
94 (93) Leaf blade 4–9 × 2–4 cm; anther tubules at least 1.5 × as long as thecae.   (95)
+ Leaf blade 2–6 × 0.7–2.5 cm; anther tubules ca. as long as thecae or slightly longer (unknown in V. guangdongense).   (96)
       
95 (94) Branch, petiole, and inflorescence axis rust-colored pubescent or tomentellate; anther tubules 4–6 × as long as thecae.   44 Vaccinium iteophyllum
+ Branch, petiole, and inflorescence axis pubescent or glabrous; anther tubules 1.5–2 × as long as thecae.   37 Vaccinium mandarinorum
       
96 (94) Leaf base rounded or broadly cuneate.   45 Vaccinium serrulatum
+ Leaf base cuneate or broadly cuneate.   (97)
       
97 (96) Leaf blade ovate or ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, 2–6 × 0.7–2.5 cm; pedicels 1–2 mm.   46 Vaccinium pubicalyx
+ Leaf blade elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, 3.5–4.2 × 1.2–1.6 cm; pedicels 3–3.5 mm.   47 Vaccinium guangdongense

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