1. Pyrus ussuriensis Maximowicz, Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, sér. 2. 15: 132. 1856.
秋子梨 qiu zi li
Pyrus simonii Carrière; P. sinensis Lindley var. ussuriensis Makino.
Trees to 15 m tall. Branchlets yellowish gray to purplish brown when young, yellowish gray or yellowish brown when old, glabrous or sparsely pubescent, sparsely lenticellate; buds ovoid, apex obtuse; scales sparsely pubescent or subglabrous at margin. Stipules caducous, linear-lanceolate, 0.8–1.3 cm, membranous, margin glandular denticulate, apex acuminate; petiole 2–5 cm, tomentose when young, soon glabrescent; leaf blade ovate to broadly ovate 5–10 × 4–6 cm, glabrous or tomentose when young, soon glabrescent, base rounded or subcordate, margin long spinulose-serrate, apex shortly acuminate or caudate-acuminate. Corymb densely 5–7-flowered; peduncle tomentose when young, soon glabrescent; bracts caducous, membranous, linear-lanceolate, 1.2–1.8 cm, margin entire, apex acuminate. Pedicel 2–5 cm, tomentose, soon glabrescent. Flower 3–3.5 cm in diam. Hypanthium campanulate, abaxially glabrous or slightly tomentose. Sepals triangular-lanceolate, 5–8 mm, abaxially glabrous, adaxially tomentose, margin initially glandular denticulate, apex acuminate. Petals white, obovate or broadly ovate, ca. 1.8 × 1.2 cm, glabrous. Stamens 20, shorter than petals. Ovary 5-loculed, with 2 ovules per locule; styles 5, nearly as long as stamens, sparsely pubescent near base. Pome yellow, subglobose, 2–6 cm in diam., 5-loculed; fruiting pedicel 1–3 cm, glabrous; sepals persistent. Fl. May, fr. Aug–Oct. 2n = 34*, 51*.
Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi [Korea, Russia; NE Asia].
This species has many cultivated forms, the fruit of which are edible; it is commonly cultivated in N, NE, and NW China. It is often used as stock for grafting pear cultivars.
Pyrus ussuriensis var. ovoidea Rehder (J. Arnold Arbor. 2: 60. 1920) is, in fact, a cultivar of P. ussuriensis. It is characterized by its ovoid, subglobose, or ellipsoid fruit, longer fruiting pedicels (2–4 cm) and tomentose leaves and corymb.
Pyrus lindleyi Rehder (Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 50: 230. 1915; P. sinensis Lindley, Trans. Hort. Soc. London 6: 396. 1826, not Dumont de Courset, 1811, nor Thouin, 1812, nor Poiret, 1816, nor P. chinensis Sprengel, 1825) might be similar to P. ussuriensis, but material was not available for study.