22. Calamus viminalis Willdenow, Sp. Pl. 2: 203. 1799.
柳条省藤 liu tiao sheng teng
Calamus extensus Martius; C. fasciculatus Roxburgh; C. litoralis Blume; C. pseudorotang Martius ex Kunth; C. viminalis subvar. andamanicus Beccari; C. viminalis subvar. bengalensis Beccari; C. viminalis subvar. cochinchinensis Beccari; C. viminalis var. fasciculatus (Roxburgh) Beccari; C. viminalis subvar. pinangianus Beccari; Palmijuncus fasciculatus (Roxburgh) Kuntze; P. litoralis (Blume) Kuntze; P. pseudorotang (Martius ex Kunth) Kuntze; P. viminalis (Willdenow) Kuntze; Rotang viminalis (Willdenow) Baillon.
Stems clustered, climbing or often forming thickets, to 35 m, to 4 cm in diam. Leaf sheaths green with dense covering of grayish or brownish hairs, with scattered, greenish or brownish, triangular, flattened spines to 4.5 cm; ocreas present; knees present; flagella to 5 m; rachis to 1.3 m with 32-55 lanceolate pinnae per side, these gray-green, distinctly clustered and spreading in different planes, apical ones usually smaller than others; middle pinnae 15-35 cm, 1-1.5 cm wide at mid-point, adaxial and abaxial main vein prominently bristly; cirri absent. Inflorescences to 3 m, flagellate; inflorescence bracts tubular. Fruits whitish or yellowish, globose, to 1 cm in diam., sometimes borne in pairs.
Lowland rain forests or deciduous forests, persisting in cleared areas and often present near villages, sometimes planted; below 600 m. Yunnan [Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia (Bali, Java, Sumatra), Laos, Malaysia (Peninsular), Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam].
This species provides a widely used cane for basketry and furniture-making, and the palm heart and fruits are eaten.