30. Dendrobium moniliforme (Linnaeus) Swartz, Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal., ser. 2. 6: 85. 1799.
细茎石斛 xi jing shi hu
Epidendrum moniliforme Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 954. 1753; Callista candida (Wallich ex Lindley) Kuntze; C. japonica (Blume) Kuntze; C. moniliformis (Linnaeus) Kuntze; C. spathacea (Lindley) Kuntze; Dendrobium candidum Wallich ex Lindley; D. castum Bateman ex H. G. Reichenbach; D. crispulum Kimura & Migo; D. heishanense Hayata; D. japonicum (Blume) Lindley; D. kosepangii C. L. Tso; D. kwangtungense C. L. Tso; D. monile (Thunberg) Kraenzlin; D. nienkui C. L. Tso; D. spathaceum Lindley; D. taiwanianum S. S. Ying; D. tosaense Makino var. chingshuishanianum S. S. Ying; D. wilsonii Rolfe; D. yunnanense Finet; D. zonatum Rolfe; E. monile Thunberg, nom. illeg. superfl.; Limodorum monile Thunberg, nom. illeg. superfl.; Onychium japonicum Blume.
Stems erect, cylindric, usually 10-30 cm or longer, slender, 3-6 mm in diam., with many nodes, internodes 1.5-2.5 cm, golden yellow or yellow tinged with dark gray when dry. Leaves several, often alternate on stem above middle, lanceolate, oblong, or narrowly oblong, 3-5(-7) × 0.5-1.2(-1.5) cm, base decurrent into clasping sheaths, apex obtuse and slightly unequally bilobed. Inflorescences 1 to several, borne above middle of deciduous or leafy old stem, usually 1-3-flowered; peduncle 3-5 mm; floral bracts pale white, tinged with brown spots, ovate, 3-7(-8) × 2-3(or more) mm, dry, membranous, apex obtuse or acuminate. Pedicel and ovary white, 1-3 cm, slender. Flowers sometimes fragrant, yellowish green, creamy white, or white tinged with pale purplish red; lip white, pale yellowish green, or greenish white, spots tinged with pale brown or purplish red to pale yellow, often with a purplish red, pale brown, pale yellow, or yellowish green central spot near base of mid-lobe, column white, foot often with purplish red stripes at base, anther cap white or pale yellow. Sepals and petals similar, ovate-oblong, oblong-lanceolate, or ovate-lanceolate, (10-)13-40 × (1.5-)3-10 mm, 5- or 6-veined, apex acute, acuminate, or obtuse; lateral sepals oblique and adnate to column foot; mentum conic or subglobose, 4-15 × ca. 5 mm, obtuse. Petals subelliptic, (23-)25-40 × 10-15 mm, 5- or 6-veined, acute; lip ovate-lanceolate in outline, slightly shorter than sepal, base cuneate, distinctly or inconspicuously 3-lobed; lateral lobes subrounded, erect, embracing column, margin entire or irregularly toothed; mid-lobe ovate to ovate-lanceolate, glabrous, base often with an elliptic callus, margin entire, apex acute or slightly obtuse; disk densely pubescent between 2 lateral lobes. Column 3-4 mm, foot ca. 1.5 cm, glabrous or sometimes hairy; anther cap conic, sometimes densely finely papillate, apex unlobed.
Epiphytic on tree trunks in broad-leaved forests, lithophytic on rocks in forests and cliffs in valleys; 600-3000 m. SW Anhui, N and SE Fujian, S Gansu, N and SW Guangdong, N Guangxi, E Guizhou, Henan, Hunan, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, S Sichuan, Taiwan, NW to SE Yunnan, N Zhejiang [Bhutan, NE India, Japan, Korea, Myanmar, Nepal, N Vietnam].
Dendrobium moniliforme var. malipoense L. J. Chen & Z. J. Liu (J. Wuhan Bot. Res. 26: 358. 2008), described from Yunnan (Malipo), is said to differ in its very small, fusiform stems 4-6 cm, inflorescence axis 1-2 cm, dorsal sepal narrowly oblong, and lip with three lamellae. However, H. P. Wood is skeptical that the taxon is really distinct from typical D. moniliforme.