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3. Biebersteiniaceae

熏倒牛科 xun dao niu ke

Authors: Langran Xu & Dionyssios D. Vassiliades

Biebersteinia heterostemon

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Perennial herbs with woody, occasionally tuberous rhizomes. Stems erect or plants nearly stemless, suffruticose. Indumentum of simple or stipitate glandular capitate trichomes. Leaves cauline or all nearly basal, alternate, stipulate; leaf blade 1-3-pinnatisect. Flowers bisexual, 5-merous, actinomorphic, 2-bracteolate in paniculate, spicate, or pseudocapitate inflorescences. Sepals free, persistent, occasionally accrescent in fruit. Petals free, alternating with 5 extrastaminal nectary glands, yellow to reddish yellow, rarely white, often denticulate at apex. Stamens 10; filaments connate at base; anthers tetrasporangiate, introrse. Gynoecium of 5 carpels; ovary superior, deeply lobed with 5 free gynobasic stylodia connected above into a capitate stigma; ovules pendulous, anacampylotropous, unitegmic, crassinucellate. Fruit a schizocarp, consisting of 5 indehiscent 1-seeded dry mericarps. Seeds large with rounded raphe; embryo slightly curved, with scanty endosperm.

One genus and four species: montane, semiarid, or occasionally forested regions from Greece to central China; two species (one endemic) in China.

Biebersteinia had traditionally been placed in the Geraniaceae, but there is now ample, mainly molecular, evidence that it comprises a separate family in the Sapindales. Muellner et al. (Pl. Syst. Evol. 266: 233-252. 2007) also traced the ancestral origin of this family to China.

Xu Langran & Huang Chengchiu. 1998. Biebersteinia. In: Xu Langran & Huang Chengchiu, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 43(1): 86-89.

Lower Taxon


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