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7. Buddleja Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 112. 1753.

醉鱼草属 zui yu cao shu

Buddleja davidii

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Shrubs, less often trees, lianas, or suffrutescent herbs. Branches terete, 4-angled, or 4-winged. Leaves opposite, rarely alternate; stipules usually leafy, suborbicular and auriculate or reduced to a transverse line; petiole often short; leaf blade margin entire, crenate, or dentate. Inflorescences terminal and/or axillary, usually many-flowered; bracts mostly leaflike; bracteoles resembling sepals. Flowers 4-merous, bisexual or unisexual. Calyx campanulate or subcampanulate, less often cup-shaped or obconical, tube usually longer than lobes. Corolla campanulate, cup-shaped, salverform, or funnel-shaped; tube cylindrical, straight to curved, usually longer than lobes; lobes imbricate, rarely valvate. Stamens inserted on corolla tube, usually included, alternating with corolla lobes; filaments shorter to longer than anthers; anthers introrse, 2-locular, base usually deeply cordate. Ovary 2(--4)-locular, with several to many ovules per locule. Style short to long; stigma often large, clavate, capitate, or less often 2-lobed. Fruit a septicidally 2-valved capsule or in China only Buddleja madagascariensis a berry, many-seeded. Seeds small, often winged; endosperm fleshy; embryo straight.

About 100 species: tropics and subtropics of America, Africa, and Asia; 20 species and five hybrids in China.

Within China at least five recognizable hybrids are occasionally found of which three have been given hybrid epithets. These hybrids are intermediate between parental species and are essentially impossible to key out.

1 Leaves alternate (see also B. X wardii)   1 Buddleja alternifolia
+ Leaves opposite (sometimes apical leaves alternate in B. asiatica).   (2)
2 (1) Corolla 2.3--3 cm, throat to 9 mm in diam., tube (1.2--)1.7--2.1 cm; fruit a capsule 1--1.6 cm   2 Buddleja colvilei
+ Corolla 2 cm or less, throat to 3.5 mm in diam., tube 1.3 cm or less (but to 1.7 cm in B. lindleyana); fruit a capsule (3--)4--8(--1.2) cm or a globose berry 2--2.5 mm (B. madagascariensis).   (3)
3 (2) Inflorescences a dense spike with many bracts of which some are longer than flowers   3 Buddleja yunnanensis
+ Inflorescences not a dense spike or if so then only some pairs of bracts among the flowers exceeding them (see B. asiatica and B. crispa).   (4)
4 (3) Corolla mostly curved, outside covered with a short indumentum; anthers mostly inserted at or below middle of corolla tube (above middle in B. brachystachia); inflorescences usually spicate (thyrsoid in B. brachystachia).   (5)
+ 4b. Corolla straight, outside glabrous, partly hairy, or entirely stellate tomentose; anthers inserted at or above middle of corolla tube or if inserted lower to middle of corolla tube then outside glabrous or only partly hairy (B. forestii and B. davidii); inflorescences not spicate or if spicate then corolla tube less than 5 mm (B. asiatica and B. myriantha), or broadly cylindrical and 8--11 X 2--3.2 mm (B. macrostachya), or leaves ± lobed (B. crispa) (see also B. brachystachya).   (7)
5 (4) Leaf blade 1--3.5 X 0.5--1.7 cm, apex acute to slightly obtuse; inflorescences 1.5--3 X 1.5--2.5 cm; ovary stellate tomentose except glabrous at base   4 Buddleja brachystachya
+ Leaf blade 3--16 X 1.5--7 cm (occasionally smaller), apex acuminate to less often acute (sometimes obtuse in B. curviflora; inflorescences 4--20 X 2--4 cm; ovary glabrous.   (6)
6 (5) Branchlets terete or occasionally obscurely angular, (1--)2--3 mm in diam. when dry; leaf margin entire to subentire; calyx and corolla outside shortly stellate tomentose to stellate pubescent and with some glandular hairs   5 Buddleja curviflora
+ Branchlets quadrangular to subquadrangular, 1(--2) mm in diam. when dry; leaf margin coarsely sinuate-dentate or entire; calyx and corolla outside pubescent with glandular hairs which may be accompanied by some stellate hairs   6 Buddleja lindleyana
7 (4) Leaf blade ovate to triangular or narrowly so, base mostly rounded to cordate and abruptly narrowed into petiole; seeds unwinged   7 Buddleja crispa
+ Leaf blade narrowly elliptic to ovate, base mostly cuneate or decurrent but never abruptly narrowed or cordate; seeds winged (unwinged in B. madagascariensis).   (8)
8 (7) Corolla tube outside glabrous or partly hairy (portion included in the calyx tube always glabrous).   (9)
+ Corolla tube outside entirely stellate tomentose.   (12)
9 (8) Inflorescences paniculate, rather lax   8 Buddleja delavayi
+ Inflorescences thyrsoid or spiciform, occasionally paniculate in B. forrestii, mostly rather dense.   (10)
10 (9) Corolla tube broadly cylindrical, 7--11 X (1.2--)2--3.5 mm   9 Buddleja forrestii
+ Corolla tube obconic and to 6.5 mm or narrowly cylindrical and 6--11.5 X ca. 1 mm.   (11)
11 (10) Corolla tube obconic, 4--6.5 mm; stamens inserted just inside corolla mouth; corolla lilac   10 Buddleja albiflora
+ Corolla tube narrowly cylindrical or nearly so, 6--11.5 mm; stamens inserted at ± middle or near base of corolla tube; corolla white to dark purple (see also B. davidii X B. fallowiana)   11 Buddleja davidii
12 (8) Corolla tube 2.5--6 mm, if more than 5 mm then mostly over 2 mm wide; inflorescences thyrsoid or spicate (paniculate sometimes in B. nivea).   (13)
+ Corolla tube (6--)7--13.5 mm, if less than 8 mm then mostly less than 2 mm wide; inflorescences paniculate, thyrsoid, or spicate (see also B. davidii).   (17)
13 (12) Ovary glabrous or scaly.   (14)
+ Ovary stellate tomentose.   (15)
14 (13) Inflorescences spiciform; lower branches not longer than others; corolla mostly white; leaf blade mostly remotely serrate-dentate   12 Buddleja asiatica
+ Inflorescences almost cylindrical; lower branches exceeding others; corolla mostly purple; leaf blade mostly serrate   13 Buddleja myriantha
15 (13) Calyx and corolla outside shortly stellate tomentose; calyx lobes not obscured by their indumentum; corolla tube 1--1.3 wide   13 Buddleja myriantha
+ Calyx and corolla outside densely stellate tomentose; calyx lobes often obscured by their indumentum; corolla tube mostly 1.8 mm wide or wider.   (16)
16 (15) Leaf blade adaxially bullate to rugose; stamens often inserted at middle of corolla tube   14 Buddleja candida
+ Leaf blade adaxially not bullate or rugose; stamens inserted just 1--1.5 mm inside corolla mouth   15 Buddleja nivea
17 (12) Inflorescences racemose, spiciform, or thyrsoid and calyx lobes acuminate.   (18)
+ Inflorescences paniculate or thyrsoid, if thyrsoid then calyx lobes acute or obtuse.   (19)
18 (17) Inflorescences racemose or spiciform, continuous and dense or less often interrupted and rather lax; corolla tube mostly broadly cylindrical and at least 2 mm wide; branchlets quadrangular and often 4-winged   16 Buddleja macrostachya
+ Inflorescences thyrsoid, sometimes interrupted; corolla tube cylindrical, 1--1.5 mm wide; branchlets terete   17 Buddleja fallowiana
19 (17) Inflorescences laxly paniculate; corolla tube 10--13.5 mm, often glabrous just above calyx; calyx lobes acuminate   8 Buddleja delavayi
+ Inflorescences paniculate or thyrsoid, lax or congested; corolla tube 6--10 mm, outside entirely stellate tomentose; calyx lobes acute or obtuse.   (20)
20 (19) Corolla dark yellow, orange, or salmon; anthers barely included; fruit baccate   19 Buddleja madagascariensis
+ Corolla white to pale purple; anthers with apex at least 1 mm below corolla mouth; fruit capsular.   (21)
21 (20) Corolla tube 1.2--1.6(--2) mm in diam., inside pilose up to insertion of stamens or up to just inside mouth; leaf blade margin entire or less often serrate, apex acuminate to rarely acute   18 Buddleja paniculata
+ Corolla tube (1.6--)2--2.2 mm in diam., inside densely pilose up to mouth or less often just inside mouth; leaf blade margin entire or sinuate to repand dentate, apex mostly acute to obtuse   20 Buddleja officinalis

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