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17. Linnaeaceae

北极花科 bei ji hua ke

Authors: Qiner Yang & Sven Landrein

Shrubs, erect or creeping. Leaves opposite, sometimes whorled, simple, estipulate, with an interpetiolar line. Inflorescence terminal or axillary; flowers in 3-flowered cymes, paired or single; bracts leaflike or reduced and located at base of ovary and forming an "epicalyx." Flowers bisexual, ± zygomorphic. Perianth 4- or 5-merous. Corolla imbricate in bud; nectary consisting of ± compact glandular hairs, inside corolla tube (nectaria trichomalia). Stamens 4, alternating with corolla lobes; filaments adnate from 1/3-1/2 with corolla tube. Ovary inferior, 3- or 4-loculed, placentation axile; 1 or 2 locules with a single fertile ovule and 2 locules with numerous sterile ovules; style long, stigmas capitate. Fruit an achene crowned with persistent sepals (deciduous in Linnaea). Seeds 1 or 2; embryo small, straight; endosperm copious.

Seven genera and 19 species (including one cultivated hybrid): Afghanistan, China, India, Japan, Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Uzbekistan, and in Europe and North America; six genera (two endemic) and 15 species (eight endemic, one cultivated hybrid) in China.

Hu Jia-qi. 1988. Caprifoliaceae (Linnaeeae, excluding Heptacodium and Symphoricarpos). In: Hsu Ping-sheng, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 72: 112-131.

1 Petioles of opposite leaf pairs dilated and connate at base, enclosing axillary buds; corolla hypocrateriform, with a cylindrical tube and 4 or 5 spreading lobes; flowers in 3-flowered cymes or paired; stigmas green and mucilaginous.   1 Zabelia
+ Petioles of opposite leaf pairs not dilated, axillary buds exposed; corolla funnelform or bilabiate with 5 spreading lobes; flowers paired or single; stigmas white and not mucilaginous   (2)
2 (1) Two bracts accrescent and becoming winglike in fruit; ovary 4-locular with 2 fertile locules.   5 Dipelta
+ Bracts not winglike in fruit; ovary 3- or 4-locular with 1 or 2 fertile locules   (3)
3 (2) Evergreen, creeping subshrubs; two bracts shieldlike and covered with sticky glandular hairs; inflorescence reduced to 2 single flowers at apices of branchlets (those can look like paired flowers but have more bracts and internodes separating them).   6 Linnaea
+ Erect shrubs; bracts and inflorescence not as above   (4)
4 (3) Bracts and bracteoles covered with bristles, accrescent and becoming spongy, woody and fused to ovaries in fruit.   4 Kolkwitzia
+ Bracts and bracteoles without bristles, small and non-accrescent in fruit   (5)
5 (4) Flowers terminal and paired (flowers opening simultaneously), sometimes 1-3(-8) due to supernumerary flowers axillary to bracteoles (more often so on repeat-bloom long shoots), spring flowering.   3 Diabelia
+ Flowers axillary, paniculate, single or paired (flowers opening consecutively), summer or autumn flowering.   2 Abelia

Lower Taxa


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