2. Adenia cardiophylla (Masters) Engler, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 14: 376. 1891.
三开瓢 san kai piao
Modecca cardiophylla Masters in J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 2: 602. 1879.
Canopy lianas, to 25 m long. Stems terete, to 8 cm in diam.; internodes 5-15 cm; tendrils to 20 cm. Stipules darkening with age, narrowly triangular, ca. 1 × 0.5 mm; petiole 3-12 cm, glands at blade-petiole junction 2, on concave ca. 4 mm in diam. auriculate extensions at apex of petiole, 2-3 mm in diam.; leaf blade cordate, rarely (2 or)3-lobed, 7-25 × 5-19 cm, membranous, not punctate, tertiary and secondary veins raised abaxially, venules distinctly trabeculate, veins from arcuate laterals parallel, base of mature leaves cordate, margins of mature leaves with irregularly spaced black-tipped glandular serrations, apex acute to acuminate, with mucro. Plants dioecious. Inflorescences with tendril emerging from center, pedunculate to 18 cm, to 30-flowered in males, 1-3-flowered in females; bracts and bracteoles triangular, ca. 1 mm, acute. Pedicel 0.5-10 mm. Flowers tubiform-campanulate, 9-25 × 3-8 mm, including stipe 6-12 mm. Hypanthium cupuliform, wall fleshy-leathery, ca. 0.75 mm thick, 6-10 mm deep. Calyx tube 0.5-3 mm; lobes narrowly triangular, 4-6 mm, rounded to acute, entire. Petals deltoid to lanceolate, 3-5 × ca. 2.5 mm, red punctate, rounded to acute, entire. Septa to 2 mm high. Corona absent. Disk glands linear, to 1 mm high, truncate. Male flowers: filaments 0.5-5.5 mm, connate up to 4 mm, inserted at base of hypanthium; anthers ca. 5 × 1.5 mm, acute, up to 0.5 mm apiculate; vestigial ovary to 3 mm, gynophore ca. 1 mm. Female flowers: staminodes 2-3 mm, connate for ca. 1 mm, inserted at base of hypanthium; ovary ellipsoid, ca. 4 × 4 mm; gynophore to 4 mm; style arms ca. 1 mm, connate for ca. 1 mm; stigmas laciniate. Capsules 1 or 2 per inflorescence, outside deep red at dehiscence, pear-shaped, fruit to 11 cm with gynophore to 7.5 cm, exocarp woody, mesocarp and endocarp spongy. Seeds to 40 per capsule, reniform; funicles of seeds 1-2 cm. Fl. Apr-Sep, fr. Jun-Nov.
Mixed forests, scrub; (800-)1000-2000 m. Yunnan [?Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam].