1. Plantago maxima Jussieu ex Jacquin, Collectanea. 1: 82. 1787.
巨车前 ju che qian
Herbs, perennial, robust. Taproot cylindric. Leaves basal; petiole 8-20 cm, densely retrorsely pubescent; blade broadly elliptic, broadly ovate, or broadly obovate, 8-20 × 5-14 cm, thickly papery, turning black when dry, white pubescent, veins 7-11, base broadly cuneate to decurrent onto petiole, margin entire or remotely repand-crenate, apex acute to rounded. Spikes cylindric, 6-20 cm, densely flowered; peduncle 20-50 cm, pubescent; bracts narrowly ovate, slightly shorter than calyx, glabrous, keel apparent. Sepals narrowly elliptic to ovate-elliptic, 2.2-2.5 mm, glabrous, keel broad, extending to apex. Corolla white, glabrous; lobes ovate-lanceolate, 1.5-2 mm, patent to reflexed, apex acute. Stamens lilac turning black when dry, adnate only to near base of corolla tube, exserted; anthers ovoid-ellipsoid, 1.6-1.8 mm. Pyxis ovoid, 3-4 mm, with 2-4 seeds. Seeds yellowish brown to black, ovoid to narrowly ovoid, 1.9-2.4 mm, ventral face prominent; cotyledons parallel to ventral side. Fl. Jun-Aug, fr. Aug-Sep. 2n = 24.
Meadows; 500-1000 m. N Xinjiang (Altay, Yining) [Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; E Europe].