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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 23 | Cyperaceae

40. CAREX sect. CAREX

薹草组 tai cao zu

Authors: Lun-Kai Dai & Tetsuo Koyama

Leaves with transverse septate nodes between veins. Involucral bracts leafy, sheathed, rarely shortly sheathed or not sheathed. Spikes 3-8; male spikes 1-4, rarely up to 7, borne at top of culm; remaining spikes female, single in an involucral bract axil, cylindric, densely many flowered, pedunculate. Female glumes lanceolate, narrowly ovate, or oblong-ovate, usually 3-veined, apex acuminate, mucronate or aristate. Utricles obliquely patent, ovate or oblong-ovate, slightly inflated or inflated trigonous, laxly or densely pubescent or hispidulous, rarely glabrous, distinctly several veined, apex gradually narrowed to a medium-sized beak, orifice rather long 2-toothed. Nutlets rather loosely or tightly enveloped in utricle, apex slightly long mucronate; style base not thickened; stigmas 3 (Carex humida with stigmas 2).

About 30 species: Asia, Europe, North America; 13 species (four endemic) in China.

1 Involucral bracts usually not sheathed or lowermost very shortly sheathed; utricles 3-4 mm, densely hispidulous (C. glabrescens with utricles up to 6 mm, laxly pilose), with 2 short to medium-sized teeth; nutlets tightly enveloped in utricle   (2)
+ Involucral bracts usually sheathed; utricles 5-10 mm, laxly pubescent or glabrous (C. wui with utricles densely hirsute), long 2-toothed; nutlets rather loosely enveloped in utricle   (6)
2 (1) Male spike single, terminal, distanced from uppermost female spike by up to 15 cm, upper female spikes subsessile, lower ones very shortly pedunculate; female glumes ovate, mucronate.   375 C. filipedunculata
+ Male spikes 2 or 3, sometimes 4, borne at top of culm, rather shortly pedunculate, female spikes usually pedunculate, rarely upper ones subsessile; female glumes ovate-lanceolate, narrowly ovate, or lanceolate, aristate or mucronate   (3)
3 (2) Leaf blades 1-2 mm wide, slightly involute on margins; female glumes lanceolate or oblong-ovate, acuminate at apex, longer than or equaling utricle; utricles with short beak, veins indistinct.   376 C. lasiocarpa
+ Leaf blades 3-5 mm wide, flat; female glumes ovate-lanceolate or narrowly ovate, mucronate or aristate at apex, usually shorter than (excluding awn) utricle; utricles with medium-sized beak, several veins distinct   (4)
4 (3) Female glumes narrowly ovate; utricles broadly ovate or ovate, 5-6 mm, laxly hispidulous.   377 C. glabrescens
+ Female glumes ovate-lanceolate; utricles oblong-ovate, 3-4 mm, densely hispidulous   (5)
5 (4) Culms stout; leaves stiff; female spikes densely many flowered; utricles with short beak, long 2-toothed at orifice.   378 C. fedia
+ Culms slender; leaves soft; female spikes graduate flowered from laxly at base to densely many flowered above; utricles with rather long beak, shortly 2-toothed at orifice.   379 C. miyabei
6 (1) Male spike single and terminal, distant uppermost female spike near; lowermost involucral bract shortly sheathed, sheath not exceeding 1 cm   (7)
+ Male spikes 2-5, distant uppermost female spike far; lowermost involucral bract rather long sheathed, sheath usually exceeding 1 cm   (8)
7 (6) Female glumes ovate-lanceolate, long aristate at apex, dark purple-red laterally, laxly hirsute; utricles broadly ovate, red-brown, densely hirsute, with 2 medium-sized teeth at orifice.   380 C. wui
+ Female glumes broadly ovate, mucronate at apex, stramineous laterally, glabrous or ciliate only at apex; utricles oblong-ovate, yellow-green, glabrous, with 2 short teeth at orifice.   381 C. latisquamea
8 (6) Utricles laxly hispidulous or ciliate on beak margins   (9)
+ Utricles glabrous   (10)
9 (8) Leaves 4-6 mm wide, glabrous; lower involucral bracts longer than inflorescence, upper involucral bracts shorter than inflorescence; spikes 5-7, female spikes 3-5 cm; utricles 5-7 mm, ciliate on beak margins.   386 C. drymophila
+ Leaves 2-3 mm wide, laxly hispidulous on both surfaces; involucral bracts shorter than inflorescence; spikes usually 4, female spikes 2-2.8 cm; utricles 4-5.6 mm, hispidulous.   387 C. hirticaulis
10 (8) Utricles oblong-lanceolate, 8-10 mm, leathery, obliquely truncate at orifice, teeth unequal.   382 C. raddei
+ Utricles ovate or oblong-ovate, 5-8 mm, subleathery or herbaceous, not obliquely truncate at orifice, teeth of equal length   (11)
11 (10) Stigmas 2; nutlets biconvex.   385 C. humida
+ Stigmas 3; nutlets trigonous   (12)
12 (11) Leaves glabrous at abaxial surface; utricles ovate, 6-7 mm, thinly leathery, stramineous, teeth rather short and strict, not divergent.   383 C. orthostachys
+ Leaves pubescent at abaxial surface; utricles broadly ovate, 7-8(-10) mm, herbaceous, greenish, teeth rather long, divergent.   384 C. eriophylla

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