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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 23 | Cyperaceae

29. CAREX sect. HYMENOCHLAENAE (Drejer) L. H. Bailey in Coulter, Man. Bot. Rocky Mt. 379. 1885.

膜囊薹草组 mo nang tai cao zu

Authors: Lun-Kai Dai, Tetsuo Koyama & Gordon C. Tucker

Carex [unranked] Hymenochlaenae Drejer, Symb. Caric. 10. 1844.

Involucral bracts leaflike, with long sheaths. Spikes usually bisexual, rarely unisexual, cylindric or oblong, densely or subdensely many flowered, rarely loosely flowered, single in an involucral bract sheath, rarely ramose and arranged in a panicle. Female glume lanceolate-ovate or ovate, rarely oblong. Utricles elliptic or obovate-elliptic, rarely narrowly ovate, obtusely trigonous or slightly inflated trigonous, inconspicuously veined, rarely distinct, with rather long or slightly long beak, orifice 2-toothed or emarginate. Nutlets subloosely enveloped; style base not thickened; stigmas 3.

Between 50 and 60 species: Africa, Asia, Central and North America, Europe; 15 species (13 endemic) in China.

1 Spikes bisexual, androgynous, or terminal spike male, lateral spikes bisexual   (2)
+ Spikes unisexual, terminal spike male, with few female flowers at base or apex in rare species, lateral spikes female   (7)
2 (1) Terminal spike male, lateral spikes bisexual; utricles 5-7 mm, distinctly veined   (3)
+ Spikes bisexual, androgynous; utricles 3-4 mm, inconspicuously veined   (4)
3 (2) Leaf blades 2-3 mm wide; terminal spike male or sometimes with few female flowers; female glumes ovate-oblong, 3.5-4 mm, apex mucronate; utricles 5-6 mm, stramineous, red-fuscous punctate; nutlets broadly elliptic, fuscous.   236 C. spachiana
+ Leaf blades 3-5 mm wide; terminal 1 or 2 spikes male; female glumes ovate, ca. 2.5 mm (except length of arista), apex long aristate; utricles 6-7 mm, stramineous, shiny; nutlets oblong, pale yellow.   237 C. nitidiutriculata
4 (2) Spikes arranged in loose or dense panicles   (5)
+ Spike single in an involucral bract sheath, not arranged in a panicle   (6)
5 (4) Spikes numerous, female part subequal to or longer than male part, male parts oblong or ovoid; glumes patent; utricles estipitate; nutlets dark brown.   232 C. neopolycephala
+ Spikes 10 or more, female part much longer than male part, male parts linear; glumes not patent; utricles shortly stipitate; nutlets brownish yellow.   233 C. shuangbaiensis
6 (4) Culms slender, 25-45 cm tall; leaves shortly sheathed, blades 1.5-2 mm wide; spikes 2 or 3, 1-3 cm; utricles ca. 3 mm.   234 C. aristatisquamata
+ Culms robust, 50-60 cm; leaves long sheathed, clothing lower part of culm up to 15 cm tall, blades 4-5 mm wide; spikes 7-10, 2-5 cm, sometimes ramose at base, female spikes sometimes with several male flowers; utricles ca. 4 mm.   235 C. wenshanensis
7 (1) Male spike sometimes with few female flowers at base or apex; utricles emarginate at orifice   (8)
+ Male spike without female flowers; utricles rather long 2-toothed at orifice   (9)
8 (7) Female spikes oblong-cylindric, 3-4 mm wide; utricles ca. 3.5 mm.   238 C. yunnanensis
+ Female spikes oblong, 7-8 mm wide; utricles 4.5-5 mm.   239 C. magnoutriculata
9 (7) Utricles obtusely trigonous, not inflated, 4-6 mm   (10)
+ Utricles inflated trigonous, 5-7 mm   (12)
10 (9) Utricles obovate or broadly elliptic, thinly leathery, 5-6 mm.   246 C. zekogensis
+ Utricles narrowly ovate or narrowly oblong, papery or membranous, 4-4.5 mm   (11)
11 (10) Male spikes 3-6, borne at apex of culm; female spike with several to 10 or more utricles; utricles glabrous.   244 C. tangii
+ Male spike 1, terminal; female spikes with many utricles; utricles hispid.   245 C. sutchuensis
12 (9) Female spikes usually 2 or 3 in an involucral bract sheath; female glumes pale, ca. 3 mm, earlier deciduous than utricles; utricles horizontally patent at maturity.   240 C. jiuxianshanensis
+ Female spikes usually single in an involucral bract sheath; female glumes yellowish brown, 3.5-4 mm, not early deciduous; utricles obliquely patent at maturity   (13)
13 (12) Terminal spike gynaecandrous, rarely male; utricles red-brown punctate; nutlets elliptic.   243 C. metallica
+ Uppermost 1-3 spikes male; utricles not red-brown punctate; nutlets obovate   (14)
14 (13) Male spike 1; lower involucral bracts with short sheath.   242 C. minquinensis
+ Male spikes 2 or 3; lower involucral bracts sheathless.   241 C. arnellii

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