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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 14 | Cornaceae

3. Cornus subg. Kraniopsis Rafinesque, Alsogr. Amer. 58. 1838.

梾木亚属 lai mu ya shu

Trees or shrubs, deciduous, rarely evergreen. Buds terminal or axillary, ovate to awn-shaped, pubescent. Leaves opposite, rarely alternate at some nodes; leaf blade ovate to elliptic, papery, rarely leathery, abaxially pubescent with appressed or raised trichomes, veins 3–8(or 9). Inflorescences terminal, compact or loose corymbose or paniculate cymes; bracts linear, minute, rarely branched, caducous prior to anthesis. Flowers often fragrant. Calyx tubular, minutely 4-dentate; teeth inconspicuous to narrowly triangular. Petals white, rarely yellowish white, ovate or oblong. Anthers yellowish white or blue-gray, oblong or oblong-ovate. Ovary 2-loculed; style cylindrical or clavate; stigma capitate, disciform, or punctiform. Fruit bluish black or black at maturity, globose, broadly globose, oblong-globose, or subovoid, seeds 2; stones bony, apex not pitted (inconspicuously pitted in one species). 2n = 22.

About 30 species: mostly in N temperate regions, a few species in subtropical mountains, one or two species in South America; 15 species (11 endemic) in China.

Many species produce hard wood that is used for agricultural tools. Some species are valuable sources of industrial oils and garden ornamentals.

1 Style conspicuously clavate.   (2)
+ Style cylindrical or slightly expanded at apex, not clavate.   (6)
2 (1) Deciduous shrub; leaves lanceolate to elliptic, rarely narrowly elliptic, veins (2 or)3(or 4).   13 Cornus quinquenervis
+ Deciduous tree; leaves elliptic or ovate-elliptic to broadly ovate, veins (3 or)4(or 5) or 5–8.   (3)
3 (2) Leaf veins 5–8.   9 Cornus macrophylla
+ Leaf veins (3 or)4(or 5).   (4)
4 (3) Bark light brown; leaf base rounded, rarely oblique; flowers smaller, ca. 5.2 mm in diam.   6 Cornus coreana
+ Bark dark gray or dark brown; leaf base cuneate to broadly cuneate, often oblique; flowers 7–9.5 mm in diam.   (5)
5 (4) Abaxial surface of leaves grayish green, pubescent with fine, appressed trichomes, veins 4; petiole 1.2–2.2 cm; inflorescences loose, branches spreading, often arched toward center; calyx teeth longer than disk.   8 Cornus koehneana
+ Abaxial surface of leaves light green, pubescent with thick appressed trichomes, scabrous, veins (3 or)4 or 5; petiole (0.8–)3.5 cm; inflorescences dense, compact, branches straight, rarely arched; calyx teeth equal to disk.   16 Cornus walteri
6 (1) Shrub, spreading; fruit creamy white or light blue at maturity; stone of fruit laterally compressed.   3 Cornus alba
+ Shrub or tree; fruit bluish black or black at maturity; stone of fruit not laterally compressed.   (7)
7 (6) Leaves leathery; stigma smaller than or subequaling style in diam.   (8)
+ Leaves papery; stigma obviously larger than style, rarely smaller than style in diam.   (9)
8 (7) Leaves broadly elliptic, lateral veins 3(or 4), conspicuous, smaller veins conspicuous; flowers ca. 9 mm in diam.   10 Cornus oligophlebia
+ Leaves elliptic, lateral veins 4 or 5, inconspicuous, smaller veins obscure; flowers ca. 7 mm in diam.   4 Cornus austrosinensis
9 (7) Leaf veins 3; flowers ca. 4.5 mm in diam.; stigma smaller than or equaling style in diam., punctiform.   12 Cornus parviflora
+ Leaf veins (2 or)3–8(or 9); flowers 7–9 mm in diam.; stigma broader than style, not punctiform.   (10)
10 (9) Abaxial surface of leaves conspicuously pubescent with ± curly or non-curly soft, raised trichomes (trichomes Y-shaped, V-shaped, or pseudofiliform).   (11)
+ Abaxial surface of leaves conspicuously pubescent with short, appressed trichomes, without raised trichomes except sometimes in axils of veins.   (13)
11 (10) Lateral veins thin, tertiary veins inconspicuous.   5 Cornus bretschneideri
+ Lateral veins thick, tertiary veins conspicuous.   (12)
12 (11) Veins 5–7, with dense yellowish trichomes; inflorescences loose corymbose cymes, nearly glabrous at anthesis; branches of inflorescences arched inward; flowers sessile or shortly pedicellate, pedicel thick, to 2 mm.   15 Cornus ulotricha
+ Veins 5–8(or 9); both veins and interveinal areas of abaxial surface with dense yellowish, grayish, or brown trichomes; inflorescences corymbose or paniculate cymes, densely pubescent at anthesis; branches of inflorescences straight; flowers pedicellate, pedicel slender, 0.5–6 mm.   14 Cornus schindleri
13 (10) Leaf veins 3 or 4(or 5).   17 Cornus wilsoniana
+ Leaf veins (5 or)6–8(or 9).   (14)
14 (13) Leaves 6–17 cm; inflorescences loose, paniculate or corymbose cymes; filaments thick, equaling or slightly exceeding petals; style slightly thickened at apex, appearing subclavate.   9 Cornus macrophylla
+ Leaves 4.5–12 cm; inflorescences compact, convex corymbose cymes; filaments slender, longer than petals; style cylindrical, not subclavate.   (15)
15 (14) Old branches light yellow; abaxial surface of leaves grayish white, inconspicuously papillate; small veins inconspicuous.   5 Cornus bretschneideri
+ Old branches red, reddish brown, purplish red, or brown; abaxial surface of leaves grayish green, conspicuously papillate; small veins conspicuous.   (16)
16 (15) Abaxial surface of leaves with blackish streaks; flowers white.   11 Cornus papillosa
+ Abaxial surface of leaves without blackish streaks; flowers white or yellowish.   7 Cornus hemsleyi

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