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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 23 | Cyperaceae

31. Carex sect. Confertiflorae Franchet ex Ohwi, Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Imp. Univ., Ser. B, Biol. 11: 474. 1936.

密花薹草组 mi hua tai cao zu

Authors: Lun-Kai Dai, Tetsuo Koyama & Gordon C. Tucker

Involucral bracts sheathed or not sheathed. Spikes unisexual; terminal spikes male; lateral spikes female (Carex olivacea with a few male flowers at apex), long cylindric, densely many flowered. Female glumes ovate-lanceolate, apex aristate (C. ischnostachya and C. subtumida with female glumes ovate, not mucronate or aristate). Utricles dark brown or brown-green, ovate or elliptic, inflated trigonous, nearly horizontally patent or ± reflexed low in some species, many veined, beak ± long or slightly short, rather long in few species, orifice 2-toothed. Nutlets rather loosely enveloped; stigmas 3.

About 20 species: E and SE Asia, Australia, Pacific islands; 16 species (seven endemic) in China.

Carex cercidascus C. B. Clarke (J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 36: 279. 1903) could not be treated here because no material was seen by the present authors.

1 Male spike linear, shorter than 3 cm; female glumes ovate or broadly ovate, shorter than 1/2 length of utricle, muticous at apex   (2)
+ Male spike cylindric, narrowly cylindric, or clavate, usually longer than 3 cm (rather short in C. brownii and C. transversa); female glumes narrowly ovate, oblong, or lanceolate, longer than 2/3 length of utricle or much more, mucronate or aristate at apex   (3)
2 (1) Female glumes broadly ovate; utricles suberect or slightly obliquely patent, ovate-oblong, ca. 4 mm; male flower with 3 stamens.   255 C. ischnostachya
+ Female glumes ovate; utricles nearly horizontally patent, elliptic or obovate, ca. 3 mm; male flower with 1 stamen.   256 C. subtumida
3 (1) Utricles hispidulous   (4)
+ Utricles smooth, glabrous   (5)
4 (3) Leaf blades 6-8 mm wide; spikes contiguous at top of culm; female glumes attenuate at apex, long aristate; utricles ca. 3 mm, equaling glume, dark brown, beak usually recurved.   257 C. nemostachys
+ Leaf blades 3-6 mm wide; spikes remote; female glumes mucronate at apex; utricles 2-2.8 mm, longer than glume, brown-green, beak straight.   258 C. sclerocarpa
5 (3) Culms lateral; female glumes dark purple-red   (6)
+ Culms central; female glumes usually pale, greenish or brownish   (7)
6 (5) Female glumes awned, ca. 5 mm; nutlets ellipsoid.   259 C. retrofracta
+ Female glumes emarginate, 2-2.5 mm; nutlets obovoid.   260 C. obliquicarpa
7 (5) Female spikes cylindric-oblong, 1-2 cm; utricles distinctly many veined   (8)
+ Female spikes long cylindric, longer than 3 cm, longest up to 10 cm; utricles few veined   (10)
8 (7) Utricles broadly obovate, ca. 3 mm, apex abruptly contracted into a short beak.   261 C. brownii
+ Utricles oblong-ovate, 4-6 mm, apex gradually narrowed to a long beak   (9)
9 (8) Utricles distinctly stipitate, 2-toothed at orifice.   262 C. benkei
+ Utricles broadly cuneate at base, obliquely truncate or minutely 2-toothed at orifice.   263 C. transversa
10 (7) Male spike linear or linear-cylindric; female glumes ovate, awned at apex, length of awn 1-2.5 × as long as utricle; utricles suberect or slightly obliquely patent at maturity, brown-green, beak straight   (11)
+ Male spike rather thick, long cylindric; female glumes lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, mucronate or aristate at apex, awn shorter than 1/2 length of glume (C. olivacea with female glumes sometimes with long awn, slightly longer than 1/2 length of glume); utricles obliquely patent to ± horizontally patent, sometimes reflexed downward, dark brown or nearly black-brown, rarely yellow-brown, beak ± recurved   (12)
11 (10) Male spike 6-14 cm; female spikes 6-14 cm; utricles ovate, ca. 3 mm, with medium-sized beak.   264 C. oedorrhampha
+ Male spike 2.5-3 cm; female spikes 2.5-5.5 cm; utricles broadly ovate, ca. 4 mm, with rather long beak.   265 C. sinoaristata
12 (10) Female spikes rather remote, loosely flowered; utricles horizontally patent or slightly reflexed downward, nearly black-brown, beak distinctly recurved.   266 C. recurvisaccus
+ Female spikes contiguous at top of culm, densely many flowered; utricles obliquely patent or nearly horizontally patent, not reflexed downward, yellow-brown or dark brown, beak slightly recurved   (13)
13 (12) Leaf blades 8-18 mm wide; female spikes usually with few male flowers at upper part; utricles inflated trigonous, ca. 4 mm; nutlets subloosely enveloped.   267 C. olivacea
+ Leaf blades 4-8(-12) mm wide; female spike without male flowers; utricles not inflated trigonous or slightly inflated trigonous, ca. 3 mm; nutlets rather tightly enveloped   (14)
14 (13) Leaf blades 8-12 mm wide; female glumes dark brown, rather long aristate; utricles dark brown at maturity, irregularly rugose or ± verrucose.   268 C. confertiflora
+ Leaf blades 4-8 mm wide; female glumes purple-red on margins, mucronate or aristate; utricles brown-yellow at maturity   (15)
15 (14) Utricles with transverse rugae at maturity, beak purple-red at upper part; nutlets stramineous.   269 C. dispalata
+ Utricles smooth at maturity, beak red-brown at upper part; nutlets dark brown.   270 C. pseudodispalata

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