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2. Polystichum sect. Xiphopolystichum Daigobo, Sci. Rep. Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku. B 15: 67. 1972.

刺叶耳蕨组 ci ye er jue zu

Polystichum sect. Duropolystichum Fraser-Jenkins.

Plants small to medium-sized, evergreen. Lamina lanceolate to narrowly ovate, stiff, leathery or thinly leathery, rarely papery, 1-pinnate to bipinnate, rarely tripinnatifid. Stipe scales brown or reddish brown, ovate and lanceolate. Rachis scales brown, reddish brown, blackish brown, or black, subulate to lanceolate, ciliate. Pinnae and pinnules asymmetrical at base, with hard spinules, with linear and ciliate microscales abaxially, shiny adaxially.

About 34 species: E Asia (33 species) and Hawaii (one species); 31 species (20 endemic) in China.

Polystichum sect. Xiphopolystichum as defined here is a combination of P. sect. Xiphopolystichum sensu Kung et al. (FRPS 5(2): 26. 2001) and P. sect. Duropolystichum Fraser-Jenkins. The latter section was called P. sect. Scleropolystichum Daigobo (FRPS 5(2): 36. 2001), but that name is a homotypic synonym of P. sect. Hypopeltis with P. aculeatum as its type.

Polystichum sect. Xiphopolystichum is apparently monophyletic according to molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses.

1 Rachis scales black or dark brown, linear or subulate   (2)
+ Rachis scales brown or reddish brown, of various shapes   (14)
2 (1) Lamina 1-pinnate; pinnae not dissected or only shallowly dissected and with 1 or 2 free lobes at base   (3)
+ Lamina bipinnate, bipinnatipartite, or rarely tripinnate   (5)
3 (2) Pinnae narrowly ovate or ovate, those of middle of lamina shorter than 2 cm.   2 P. otophorum
+ Pinnae linear-lanceolate, those of middle of lamina longer than 3 cm   (4)
4 (3) Lamina green; pinnae shallowly toothed, basiscopic bases obliquely truncate; indusia bicolorous (blackish at center and light brown on margin).   3 P. xiphophyllum
+ Lamina yellowish green; pinnae entire, basiscopic bases rounded; indusia concolorous (brown).   4 P. revolutum
5 (2) Pinnae pinnatipartite, with 0-2 free lobes at base   (6)
+ Pinnae with many free lobes at base   (7)
6 (5) Lamina narrowly ovate or broadly lanceolate; pinnae 16-25 pairs.   5 P. langchungense
+ Lamina narrowly lanceolate; pinnae 25-32 pairs.   6 P. diffundens
7 (5) Lamina tripinnate; pinnules deeply dissected.   7 P. incisopinnulum
+ Lamina bipinnate; pinnules often not dissected   (8)
8 (7) Pinnules obviously auriculate; pinnules denticulate and spinulose on margin   (9)
+ Except for basalmost acroscopic pinnule, pinnules exauriculate; pinnules often entire   (11)
9 (8) Lamina leathery; rachis scales narrowly lanceolate.   14 P. mayebarae
+ Lamina thinly leathery; rachis scales linear, broadened and ciliate at base   (10)
10 (9) Pinnules lanceolate or narrowly elliptic, distant from each other.   12 P. herbaceum
+ Pinnules oblong, ovate, or deltoid, approximate.   13 P. tsus-simense
11 (8) Pinnules obliquely oblong or ovate, those of lower part of lamina 8-18 mm   (12)
+ Pinnules obliquely broadly ovate or broadly obovate, those of lower part of lamina 4-8 mm   (13)
12 (11) Lamina shorter than 30 cm; rachis scales brown.   8 P. pseudosetosum
+ Lamina up to 37 cm; rachis scales dark brown.   9 P. exauriforme
13 (11) Lamina shorter than 20 cm; pinnae shortly acute.   10 P. sinotsus-simense
+ Lamina up to 50 cm; pinnae caudate or long acuminate.   11 P. pseudoxiphophyllum
14 (1) Lamina 1-pinnate, linear-lanceolate, 1.8-2.5 cm wide, ratio of length to width larger than 5; pinnae not dissected or shallowly dissected, rarely deeply dissected; lobes fewer than 4 pairs   (15)
+ Lamina bipinnatifid to bipinnate, elliptic or broadly lanceolate, broader than (5-)6 cm, ratio of length to width smaller than 4; pinnae with 4-15 pairs of lobes or pinnules   (22)
15 (14) Pinnae rhombic-ovate, not dissected (sometimes with 1 lobe at base).   15 P. delavayi
+ Primary pinnae pinnatifid, at least basiscopic bases with 1 lobe   (16)
16 (15) Lamina linear-lanceolate; pinnae of lower part of lamina with 1 or 2 lobes   (17)
+ Lamina lanceolate or deltoid-lanceolate; primary pinnae pinnatifid or pinnate   (19)
17 (16) Pinnae acute to acuminate into a spine.   16 P. stimulans
+ Pinnae obtuse or nearly rounded and with a spine at apex   (18)
18 (17) Lamina leathery, subglabrous adaxially.   17 P. rhomboideum
+ Lamina thinly leathery, with fibrillose microscales adaxially.   18 P. adungense
19 (16) Lobes or pinnules entire or with forward-pointing small teeth   (20)
+ At least lobes or pinnules of lower part of pinnae with open spinulose teeth   (21)
20 (19) Widest part of lamina located at base or below middle; rachis scales filiform.   19 P. cyclolobum
+ Widest part of lamina located at middle; rachis scales not filiform.   20 P. mehrae
21 (19) Pinnae spreading, approximate, basal acroscopic pinnules broadly ovate or rhombic-ovate.   21 P. acanthophyllum
+ Pinnae ascending, distant from each other, basal acroscopic pinnules ovate or narrowly ovate.   22 P. meiguense
22 (14) Primary pinnae not dissected to pinna rachis.   23 P. rigens
+ Primary pinnae pinnate   (23)
23 (22) Pinnules of lower part of pinnae with obvious deltoid auricles   (24)
+ Pinnules without auricles   (26)
24 (23) Basalmost acroscopic pinnules unusually large, pinnatifid; lateral veins concave abaxially.   24 P. baoxingense
+ Basalmost acroscopic pinnules often not dissected or partially dissected at most; lateral veins not concave or slightly raised abaxially   (25)
25 (24) Lamina longer than 40 cm; stipe and rachis scales brown or reddish brown.   25 P. squarrosum
+ Lamina shorter than 30 cm; stipe and rachis scales brown, reddish brown, or dark brown.   26 P. orientalitibeticum
26 (23) Pinnules of middle pinnae rhombic or broadly lanceolate   (27)
+ Pinnules of middle pinnae broadly ovate, obliquely oblong, or rhombic-ovate   (29)
27 (26) Rachis scales ovate-lanceolate, not twisted.   27 P. latilepis
+ Rachis scales subulate to narrowly lanceolate, twisted   (28)
28 (27) Pinnules broadly lanceolate, with long sharp teeth.   28 P. neolobatum
+ Pinnules rhombic, with short sharp teeth.   29 P. yigongense
29 (26) Pinnules entire or with few small teeth.   30 P. integrilimbum
+ Pinnules obviously sharply spinulose   (30)
30 (29) Lamina 25-60 cm; pinnules obliquely broadly ovate, most pinnules without open, long, sharp teeth.   31 P. garhwalicum
+ Lamina 20-40 cm; pinnules rhombic, all pinnules with open, long, sharp teeth.   32 P. rhombiforme

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