Description from Flora of China
Cardamine agyokumontana Hayata; C. circaeoides var. diversifolia O. E. Schulz; C. heterandra J. Z. Sun & K. L. Chang; C. insignis O. E. Schulz; C. macrocephala Z. M. Tan & S. C. Zhou; C. reniformis Hayata; C. violifolia O. E. Schulz; C. violifolia var. diversifolia O. E. Schulz, nom. inval.; C. violifolia var. pilosa K. L. Chang & H. L. Huang.
Herbs perennial, (5-)9-36(-45) cm tall, sparsely to densely pilose at least on leaves. Rhizomes slender, sometimes with a few stolons. Stems slender, erect or decumbent, simple or rarely branched above middle. Basal leaves not fleshy, simple or rarely 2-4-foliolate; petiole 1-9(-12) cm, glabrous or rarely ciliate; leaf blade or terminal leaflets cordate or ovate, rarely suborbicular, (0.7-)1.5-5.5(-6.7) × (0.7-)1.5-4.3(-5) cm, always longer than wide, pilose or glabrous, base cordate, sometimes obtuse, subtruncate, or subcuneate, margin often repand-crenate, sometimes coarsely crenate, crenulate, or subentire, often distinctly mucronate at vein endings, apex obtuse; lateral leaflets (when present) petiolulate or sessile, much smaller than terminal one. Cauline leaves 1-4, simple or rarely 1 of which 2- or 3-foliolate, petiolate or rarely uppermost subsessile; petiole (0.4-)1-5(-6) cm, with basal auricles 0.4-2 × 0.2-0.4 mm; leaf blade similar to that of basal leaves, cordate, sometimes ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 1-3.5(-6) × 1-3(-3.5) cm. Fruiting pedicels 3-12(-15) mm, ascending, divaricate, or reflexed, sometimes secund, glabrous, slender. Sepals ovate or oblong, 2-3.5 × 0.8-1.5 mm, glabrous, margin often membranous, base not saccate. Petals white, spatulate, (4-)5-7(-8) × (1.5-)2-2.5(-4) mm. Median filament pairs (2.5-)3.5-5 mm, lateral pair (2-)2.5-3.5 mm; anthers oblong, 0.5-1 mm. Ovules 20-42 per ovary. Fruit linear, 1.3-3(-3.3) cm × 0.8-1.2(-1.5) mm; valves torulose, glabrous; style (0.5-)1-2 mm. Seeds brown, ovate or broadly oblong, 0.8-1.1 × 0.6-0.9 mm, wingless. Fl. and fr. Feb-Jul.
Although the present authors have not seen the type collection of Cardamine agyokumontana, the protologue of the species and the examination of numerous, simple-leaved specimens from Taiwan leave no doubt that this taxon is conspecific with C. circaeoides. Records in FRPS of C. circaeoides (as C. violifolia) from Anhui, Hubei, and Zhejiang (also in Fl. Zhejiang 3: 55. 1993) are based on misidentified plants of C. anhuiensis.
Both Cardamine violifolia and C. violifolia var. diversifolia are based on the same type collection, Henry 3298 (holotype, B; isotypes, BM, E, GH, P, US), and the latter name is therefore invalid under Art. 26.2 of the St. Louis Code. The only difference between the two taxa is the presence in var. diversifolia of trifoliolate instead of simple leaves, though such variation is very common in, and can be observed on the holotype specimen of, C. circaeoides. Schulz (Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 32: 280-623. 1903) separated C. violifolia from C. circaeoides mainly on account of the former having minutely auriculate instead of nonauriculate petiolar bases. However, he overlooked the occurrence of minute petiolar auricles in every specimen he cited under C. circaeoides, including the type collection. In fact, all of the Chinese and non-Chinese material of C. circaeoides examined by the present authors has petiolar auricles. The type collection of C. insignis, A. Henry 13090 (holotype, B; isotypes, E, K, LE, MO), is indistinguishable from those of both C. circaeoides and C. violifolia, and Schulz's distinction of these species based on the orientation of the pedicels does not hold.
Ravines, along streams and ditches, rocky places, mixed woods, moist pastures, roadsides, forests; 400-3300 m. Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan [India, Laos, Myanmar, Sikkim, Thailand, Vietnam].