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Moss China | Family List | Moss China V. 2 | Calymperaceae

1. Calymperes Sw. ex F. Web., Tabula exhibens Calyptratarum Operculatarum. 1814[1813].


Stems erect. Leaves oblong-lanceolate to linear; leaves of some species with well-developed teniolae, or teniolae lacking; costa stout, usually percurrent, or excurrent; cells of upper laminae mostly isodiametric but transversely elongate in some species; gemmae common, fusiform, borne at leaf tips; gemmiferous leaves often strongly differentiated, with the leaf tip sometimes forming a distinct gemma receptacle. Setae straight, elongate; capsules cylindric; peristome lacking; rostrum of operculum gripped by tip of calyptrae. Calyptrae persistent, enveloping capsule and twisted around seta proximally, with vertical fissures through which the spores escape.

Calymperes is closely related to Syrrhopodon, from which it differs consistently only in the unique calyptra. The tip of the calyptra grips the rostrum of the operculum. In the dry state, the operculum is held up away from the mouth of the capsule, allowing the spores to escape through the gaping fissures in the calyptrae. When wet, the slits in the calyptrae close, and the mouth of the capsule is closed by the operculum. Calymperes is almost strictly tropical and subtropical, mainly at low elevations.

In some of the species of Calymperes with strongly dimorphic leaves, some plants (or entire specimens) may consist only of vegetative leaves or only of gemmiferous leaves, and the two types of leaves may be quite different from one another. Typically, however, stems of Calymperes bear vegetative leaves at their bases and gemmiferous leaves at their tips. Eleven species of Calymperes occur in China.

1 Leaves narrowly long-linear; at least some cells of upper laminae (usually most of them) transversely elongate   (2)
+ Leaves oblong to variously lanceolate-acuminate but not long-linear; cells of upper laminae mostly isodiametric (sometimes transversely elongate in C. fasciculatum, which has subulate-acuminate leaves)   (4)
2 (1) Distal cells of cancellinae gradually blending with adjacent green cells of upper laminae; longest cells of axillary hairs mostly less than twice as long as wide   8 Calymperes serratum
+ Distal cells of cancellinae sharply demarcated from adjacent small green cells of upper laminae; longest cells of axillary hairs 3-4 or more times longer than wide   (3)
3 (2) Cells of upper laminae pluripapillose on at least some leaves   5 var. hainanense
+ Cells of upper laminae smooth   6 Calymperes lonchophyllum
4 (1) Leaf margins grossly tuberculate   9 Calymperes strictifolium
+ Leaf margins entire or toothed but not tuberculate   (5)
5 (4) Leaves bearing narrow intramarginal (sometimes marginal) files of differentiated cells (teniolae), at least at shoulder region   (6)
+ Leaves lacking teniolae   (9)
6 (5) Distal cells of cancellinae and adjacent green cells of upper laminae markedly mammillose adaxially; costa excurrent in gemmiferous leaves and bearing gemmae all around on its tip   2 Calymperes erosum
+ Distal cells of cancellinae plane; costa at most percurrent in gemmiferous leaves and bearing gemmae only on its adaxial surface   (7)
7 (6) Gemmae borne in a distinct receptacle at tips of gemmiferous leaves; cancellinae ending in very broad angles distally, often appearing truncate   7 Calymperes moluccense
+ Gemmae not borne in receptacles; cancellinae ending in acute angles distally or rounded, not truncate   (8)
8 (7) Plants robust, coarse; leaves often coarsely toothed distally; cancellinae somewhat rounded distally, often with files of hyaline cells interfingering among adjacent green cells of upper laminae; teniolae strong, obscure, often more or less marginal at leaf shoulders   10 Calymperes tahitense
+ Plants small to medium-sized, scarcely coarse; leaves entire or only weakly toothed; cancellinae ending in very acute angles distally, distal cells not interfingering among adjacent green cells of upper laminae; teniolae distinct, intramarginal   1 Calymperes afzelii
9 (5) Leaves subulate-acuminate; costa often long-excurrent from the subula; leaf margins often coarsely toothed distally with paired teeth; some or most cells of upper laminae often transversely elongate   3 Calymperes fasciculatum
+ Leaves ligulate to oblong or lanceolate, not subulate; costa percurrent or only shortly excurrent; leaf margins entire; cells of upper laminae mostly isodiametric   (10)
10 (9) Costa excurrent in gemmiferous leaves and bearing gemmae all around on its tip in pale spherical clusters; gemma receptacle lacking; cancellinae mostly truncate distally   11 Calymperes tenerum
+ Costa at most only percurrent, bearing gemmae only on adaxial surface; gemmae often borne in a distinct receptacle; cancellinae mostly rounded or acute distally   4 Calymperes graeffeanum

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