11. Cynodontium Bruch & Schimp. in B. S. G., Coroll. Bryol. Eur. 12. 1856.
Plants growing on non-calcareous soil or rocks in the alpine regions, small to medium-sized, dull green or brownish, in dense clusters or tufts. Stems erect or ascending, simple or branched, somewhat radiculose below, triangular in transverse section. Leaves crispate or flexuose when dry, erect-spreading when moist, lanceolate, keeled, gradually tapered to a narrow, acute or rounded-obtuse apex; margins nearly plane or recurved below the middle, sometimes throughout, serrulate and bistratose in the upper half; costa narrow, percurrent or nearly so, roughened on the back throughout or only in the upper part of leaves, with dorsal and ventral stereid bands in transverse section; upper cells irregular subquadrate, often broader than long, obscure, long spinose or low mammillose on both surfaces, lower cells rectangular, smooth and pale, thin-walled; alar cells not or only slightly differentiated. Autoicous, rarely dioicous. Perigonial buds below the perichaetia, sometimes with a short stalk. Perichaetial leaves not much differentiated from the vegetative leaves. Setae elongate, smooth, yellowish, erect or cygneous when moist; capsules erect, symmetric with a short neck or curved, asymmetric, and inclined with a struma, furrowed when dry and empty; opercula obliquely long-rostrate with rather stout beak; annuli compound or none; stomata present; peristome teeth 16, inserted below or near the mouth, lanceolate, reddish or reddish brown, often divided in the upper half or lower, or sometimes not divided, vertically striate below, papillose or hyaline above. Calyptrae cucullate, smooth, entire at the base. Spores spherical, yellowish or reddish brown, smooth or slightly roughened.
There are about 10 species of Cynodontium in the world, mostly distributed in alpine and northern cold temperate regions. Four species are currently recognized in China. Cynodontium schisti (Web. & Mohr) Lindb. was reported by Tan et al. (1995) from Habahe county, Xinjiang, a species new to China. However, we cannot confirm the report.