26. Orthodicranum (Bruch & Schimp.) Loeske, Stud. Morph. Syst. Laubm. 85. 1910; Dicranum subg. Orthodicranum Bruch & Schimp., Bryol. Eur. 1: 6 (fasc. 46–47. Consp. 1: viii). 1851.
Plants small to medium-sized, brownish green above, dark green below, in dense, tomentose tufts. Stems erect, usually branched, covered with brownish rhizoids at base. Leaves crispate and contorted when dry, erect to flexuose when moist, lanceolate, from a narrowly ovate base, gradually narrowed to a subtubulose or subulate apex; margins plane, serrulate above the middle; costa strong, occupying 1/5 – 1/3 the leaf base width, percurrent to shortly excurrent, with 2 stereid bands in transverse section, denticulate or spinulose at back above; upper cells quadrate to short-rectangular, thick-walled, smooth; lower cells elongate, rectangular, sometimes porose; alar cells clearly differentiated, brownish, thick-walled, unistratose, extending close to the costa. Dioicous. Inner perichaetial leaves with a high sheathing base. Setae elongate, straight; capsules erect, symmetric, cylindric, smooth or slightly striate when dry and empty; opercula long-rostrate; annuli differentiated, in 1–2 rows of cells, deciduous; peristome teeth 16, lanceolate, divided or perforate to the middle or sometimes nearly to the base, pale and papillose above, faintly striate below. Calyptrae cucullate, smooth at base. Spores spherical, papillose.
Orthodicranum is sometimes included in the genus Dicranum, but it can be separated from Dicranum by its erect capsules and crispate leaves. The species of Orthodicranum are mainly distributed in northern temperate regions, growing on bases of trees or rotten logs under forests. Two species are recognized in China.