6. Tortula subulata Hedw., Sp. Musc. Frond. 1801.
Bryum subulatum (Hedw.) With., Syst. Arr. Brit. Pl. (ed. 4) 3: 518. 1801. Syntrichia subulata (Hedw.) Web. & Mohr, Index Mus. Pl. Crypt. 2: 1803. Desmatodon subulatus (Hedw.) Jur., Laubm.-Fl. Oesterr.-Ung. 138. 1882.
Plants medium-sized, rather stout, 10–30 mm high, dark green above, reddish brown below, in dense tufts. Stems erect, simple, rarely irregularly branched, radiculose below. Leaves often crowded at stem tips, contorted-curved when dry, spreading when moist, oblong-lanceolate to narrowly sub-spathulate, subulate at apex, sometimes curved at base; margins often recurved, entire or crenulate by projecting papillae, occasionally serrulate at apex, borders differentiated by 1–4 rows of strongly thick-walled, yellowish cells; costa stout, reddish brown, excurrent, ending in a short, smooth awn; upper leaf cells quadrate to hexagonal, moderately thick-walled, each cell covered with several C-shaped papillae; basal cells sharply differentiated, rectangular, hyaline and smooth. Autoicous. Setae 10–25 mm long; capsules erect, cylindrical, ca. 8 mm long; peristome teeth filiform, twisted, densely papillose; annuli consisting of 1–3 rows of vesiculose cells, deciduous.
Chinese specimens examined: GANSU: Qi-lian Shan (Mt.), Z.-D. Zhuo 76036b (PE). HEBEI: Wei Co., Y.-C. Zhao 21 (PE). HENAN: Aobe Shan (Mt.), H.-J. Yu 1105 (PE). XINJIANG: Jungar Basin, R.-C. Qin 1037 (HKAS).
Habitat: on rocks in shade or on forest ground; Distribution: China, Turkey, Russia, Europe, Africa, and North America.
Illustrations: Zander 1993 (Pl. 84, figs. 1–15).