Bryoxiphium norvegicum ssp. norvegicum (C. Mull.) Mitt., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 12: 580. 1869; Phyllogonium (Eustichia) norvegica Brid., Bryol. Univ. 2: 674. 1827.
Plants slender, generally 1–2(–3) cm high, light green or yellowish, shiny, gregarious or in loose tufts. Stems linear, erect, more or less twisted. Leaves crowded, overlapping in 2 rows, keeled, conduplicate, 1–2 mm long, oblong-lanceolate, obtuse or rounded and finely crenate at the apex, becoming abruptly apiculate, somewhat subulate near the tips of the fertile stems and grading into the perichaetial leaves; costa ending somewhat below subula in the uppermost and perichaetial leaves, the dorsal lamella usually in 1–2 rows of cells, not reaching the leaf base, sometimes ending above midleaf, occasionally nearly lacking. Perichaetial leaves about 4–6 mm long, gradually narrowed to a long, flexuose, more or less hyaline awn with entire or sinuose margins. Setae about 2 mm long, erect-flexuose or somewhat cygneous; capsules about 1 mm long, shortly obovoid, somewhat systylius. Spores 19–23 µm, very faintly roughened.
Type. Iceland: Mörch s.n.
Chinese specimens examined: JILIN: An Tu Co., Z.-E. Liu 3992 (IFSBH, MO); Changbai Shan (Mt.), C. Gao 22198 (MO). LIAONING: Fengcheng Co., R.-G. Nan 3280 (IFSBH). NEI MONGOL: A Er Shan (Mt.), C. Gao 520 (IFSBH).
Habitat: on sandstone or calcareous rocks in cold temperate regions; Distribution: China, Greenland, Iceland, North America, and the Dominican Republic.
Illustrations: C. Gao et al. (1994, Pl. 43, figs. 1–7).