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Pakistan | Family List | Brassicaceae

Brassica Linn., Sp. Pl. 666. 1753. Gen. Pl. ed. 5:299. 1754; Prain in Rec. Agr. Bull. Bengal 4:1898; Schulz in Engl., Pflanzenr. 70 (IV. 105) : 1-290, 1919, and 1-100. 1923; Schulz in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. ed. 2, 17b: 321. 1936; Sinskaya in Kom., Fl. U.R.S.S. ed. 2, 8:459. 1939; Hedge in Davis, Fl. Turk. 1:263. 1965; in Rech. f., Fl. Iran. 57:33.1968; Harberd in Bot. Journ. Linn. Soc. 65:1-23. 1972.

Brassica juncea

Credit: Shaukat & Azmat

Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, glabrous or hairy with simple, often setaceous hairs; roots slender or tuberous. Leaves alternate, lower rarely rosulate, lyrate, cuneate or amplexicaul. Racemes usually short and corymbose. Flowers mediocre, usually yellow, pedicellate, regular; pedicels increasing in length in fruit, often slightly thickened and spreading. Sepals sub-equal; outer oblong obtuse; inner ovate, sub-obtuse, saccate at the base. Stamens 6; filaments linear. Nectar glands often green in colour; laterals abruptly prismatic, often small; middle subglobose, oblong, filiform, sometimes large, up to 0.7 mm long. Gynop¬hore present or absent in fruit. Ovary cylindrical, 5-45 ovuled. Siliquae linear or oblong, cylindrical, rarely sub-compressed, often somewhat torulose; beak usually conical, rarely cylindrical or filiform, 0-3 seeded; valves with a prominent mid-vein; style with a prominent capitate sub-bilobed stigma; septum complete, hyaline, often somewhat thickened between the seeds; seeds uniseriate, globose or rarely ovoid, brown, finely alveolate; cotyledons conduplicate (longitudinally folded).

About 40 species mostly in the Mediterranean region; only 7 species are found in Pakistan, and of these only 2 are wild and the rest are known from cultivation only.

An important genus, including many vegetables and oil seed plants, taoxno¬mically very difficult because of the multitude of closely related races (Clapham et al, Fl. Brit. Isles, 147. 1952). Hence no attempt has been made here to mention all the infra specific categories except a few which are common.

1 Upper leaves amplexicaul, rounded or deeply cordate at the base, rarely narrowed at the base but with convex margin   (2)
+ Upper leaves stalked or narrowed at the base   (4)
2 (1) All leaves glabrous; middle and upper leaves never clasping more than 1/3 of the stem; filaments of all stamens erect   Brassica oleracea
+ Lowest leaves always + bristly or ciliately hairy; middle and upper leaves at least clasping 1/2 of the stem; filaments of outer stamens curved at the base   (3)
3 (2) All leaves glaucous; buds slightly overtopping the open flowers; petals pale yellow or buff   Brassica napus
+ At least the lowest leaves green; open flowers overtopping the buds; petals bright yellow   Brassica rapa
4 (1) Pedicel usually equal or shorter then the sepals; beak of siliquae 3-4(-5) mm long   (5)
+ Pedicel longer than the sepals; beak of siliquae (5-) 10-16 mm long   (6)
5 (4) Siliquae 10-17 mm. long + appressed to the stem with erect pedicel   Brassica nigra
+ Siliquae more than 30 mm long, often deflexed with spreading pedicel   Brassica deflexa
6 (4) Beak of siliqua 6-10 mm long, narrower than the stigma at its tip; lower leaves lyrate-pinnatifid, sparsely bristly   Brassica juncea
+ Beak of siliqua 10-16 mm long (rarely more), thick and as wide as the stigma at its tip; lower leaves runcinate-pinnatifid, ciliate and densely bristly beneath   Brassica tournefortii

  • List of lower taxa


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