1. Chrysanthemum coronarium Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 890. 1753; R.R.Stewart, Ann. Cat. Vasc. Pl. W. Pak. & Kashm. 731. 1972; Grierson in P.H.Davis, op. cit. 254. 1975; Mouterde, Nouv. Fl. du Lib. et Syr. 3: 41. Pl. CCXXXIV., 2. 1984; Podlech in Rech. f., Fl. Iran. Comp. IV. 158. t. 84. 1986; Mand., Fl. Eastern Saudi Arab. 302.1990.
Matricaria coronaria (L) Lam., Encycl. Meth. Bot. 3: 737. 1792.
Glabrescent-glaucous herbs, 20 – 70 (-80) cm tall with sulcate, much branched stems. Basal leaves shortly petioled, oblong-obovate, almost entire, the apex trifid; cauline leaves sessile, 3 – 8 (-10) cm long, 2 (-3)-pinnatisect, the terminal lobes largest, the lobes oblong or lanceolate, generally acute, the margin incised-dentate or entire; upper cauline leaves smaller, obovate, becoming 1-pinnatisect. Capitula often solitary or in clusters of 2-5, on up to 10 cm long peduncles, (1.3-) 1.5 – 2.5 (-3) cm in diameter. Involucre ± cupular, 1-2 cm across, outer phyllaries ovate-oblong, 3 – 8 mm long, often with central brown line and brownish, narrowly scarious margined; inner phyllaries 6 – 8 (-10) mm, with a much broader scarious margin at apex, often with a rounded scarious apical appendage. Ray-florets 18 or more, ligules broadly oblong, 1 – 1.5 cm long, sulphur-yellow, cream or pale-white with a yellow base, apically 3-lobed or entire, obtuse. Disc florets numerous, with yellow, 4 – 5 mm long, 5-lobed, gradually upwards expanding corolla tube, sometimes with sessile glands. Cypselas 2 – 3 mm long, ray-cypselas sharply triquetrous, the angles 2 –3 winged, the disc-cypselas often cylindrical, with one wing or small spine-like appendages at the rim, or unwinged and ribbed, often with sessile glands.
Fl. Per.: May – September.
Type: Described from Crete and Sicily, Herb. Cliff. 416/1 (BM!).
In China and Japan, varieties of vegetable or garland chrysanthemum are grown for consumption as vegetable. It is a very commonly cultivated garden ornamental and found as an escape; Distribution: Mediterranean region eastwards to Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Central Asia; introduced and cultivated in many parts of the globe.