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Pakistan | Family List | Poaceae | Arundo

Arundo donax Linn., Sp. Pl. 1: 81. 1753. Boiss., Fl. Or. 5:564. 1884; Duthie, Fodder Grasses 60. 1888; Hook.f., Fl, Brit. Ind. 7:302. 1896; Blatter & McCann, Bombay Grasses 204. 1935; Bor, Fl. Assam 5:89. 1940; Sultan & Stewart, Grasses W. Pak. 2: 222. 1959; Bor, Grasses Burma Ceyl. Ind. Pak. 413. 1960; Bor in Towns., Guest & Al-Rawi, Fl. Iraq 9:372. 1968; Bor in Rech. f., Fl. Iran. 70; 351. 1970; Tzvelev, Poaceae URSS 605. 1976; Tutin in Tutin et al., Fl. Eur.5:253.1980. (Fig. 2, 1-10).

Vern.: Nar, Nara, Nal.

  • Arundo bengalensis Retz.
  • Arundo bifaria Retz.
  • Arundo longifolia Salisb. ex Hook. f.
  • Arundo triflora Roxb. ex Hook. f.

    Perennial, with creeping woody rhizomes. Culms erect, up to 5 m high. Leaf-blades conspicuously distichous, linear-lanceolate, rounded or cordate at the base, 30-60 cm long, 2.5-5 cm wide, glabrous, smooth, long-attenuate at the tip. Panicle 30.60 cm long and 5.8(10) cm wide. Spikelets 10-15 mm long; glumes subequal, lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, (8-)10-13 mm long, the lower a little shorter than the upper; lemmas lanceolate, (6)8.5-13 mm long, 3-5-nerved, 3 of the nerves produced as short aristae, hairy all over the back below the middle with hairs up to 7 mm long.

    Fl. & Fr. Per.: June - December.

    Type locality: Spain.

    Distribution: Pakistan (Baluchistan, Punjab, N.W.F.P. & Kashmir); Mediterranean region eastwards to Burma; North Africa; introduced into many parts of the World.

    Arundo donax is a plant of wet habitats but Bor (Grasses Burma Ceyl. Ind. Pak. 415) stated that it will grow in dryish places when once established. Cattle will browse its young leaves but it is not of much account as a fodder grass. In Europe it is extensively cut to make mats, trays and baskets and the Romans used the stems for pens. It is sometimes used for making paper but is commercially of less value than Phragmites australis.

    Considerable difficulty may be experienced in distinguishing immature plants of Arundo, Neyraudia and Phragmites, and dissecting the spikelets will be of little use. Phragmites can be distinguished by the silky beard at the bases of the lowest panicle branches which is absent from the other two genera. The ligule of Arundo is membranous while that of Phragmites and Neyraudia is a fringe of hairs. The leaves of Arundo are very much broader than in the other genera and are conspicuously cordate or rounded at the base.


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