8. Epilobium royleanum Hausskn., Oesterr. Bot. Z. 29: 55. 1879; Monogr. Epil. 205. 1884; H. LJv., Ic. Gen. Epil. t. 66. 1910; Raven, Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Bot. 2: 358. 1962; Raven in Rech.f., Fl. Iran. 7: 11. 1964; Stewart, Ann. Cat. Vasc. Pl. W. Pak. & Kashm. 507. 1972.
Peter C. Hoch and Peter H. Raven
? Epilobium roseum Schreb. var. indicum Clarke in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 2: 584. 1879. No authentic material seen, but probably belongs here (Raven, Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bot. 2: 358. 1962). Epilobium roseum Schreb. var. dalhousieanum Clarke in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 2: 584. 1879. Lectotype: India, Himachal Pradesh, Dalhousie, 2100 m, 11 Sept. 1874, Clarke 22190 (K). Epilobium lividum Hausskn., Monogr. Epil. 201, t. 7 fig. 48. 1884; H. LJv., Ic. Gen. Epil, t. 73. 1910. Type: India, Uttar Pradesh, Kumuan; seed from near Deoband, 2400 m, Duthie, grown at Kew and collected 30 June 1880, Nicholson (JE). Epilobium himalayense Hausskn., Monogr Epil. 213, t. 7 fig. 48. 1884; ? H. LJv., Ic. Gen. Epil. t. 108. 1910 (forsan E. brevifolium subsp. brevifolium). Lectotype: India, Himachal Pradesh, ascent to Werang Pap, Kanawar, 19 Aug. 1857, Thomson s.n. (K).
Ascending or erect perennial herb, forming fleshy soboles basally, which leave brown scales at base of larger plants; stems 6-65 cm tall, simple or well-branched above, covered all around with dense strigillose hairs, rarely with glandular hairs, or rarely subglabrous. Leaves lanceolate to ovate, 2-7.5 x 1-3.3 cm, not much reduced in size on the inflorescence, dense strigillose, especially on upper leaves and on margins and veins, dense serrulate, subcoriaceous, acute to subacuminate apex, .with distinct petiole 2-8 mm long. Inflorescence suberect. Ovaries dense strigillose, sometimes mixed with glandular hairs, 2-3 cm long, on pedicels 0.2-0.5 cm long. Sepals 3.5-4.5 x 1.2-1.8 mm, dense pubescent. Petals 4-6.5 mm long, rose-purple or pale pink. Style 3-4 mm long. Stigma capitate, surrounded by anthers at anthesis. Capsules 4-6.5 cm long, pedicels 0.4-0.8 cm long. Seeds 0.7-1.2 x 0.32-0.46 mm, obovoid, papillose, with inconspicuous chalazal collars; coma 4.5-6 mm long, dull white, detaching easily.
Type: unplaced locality "North-west India", Royle s.n. (K, lectotype).
Distribution: North-eastern Afghanistan (Nuristan) throughout the Himalaya to Yunan, China; rare in the east.
The most distinctive feature of E. royleanum, which sets it apart from all other species in the region, is the pattern of vestiture, with the stems being covered with strigillose hairs all around, and lacking the raised lines from the margins of the petioles. Two very distinctive departures from this pattern were designated as formae glandulosum and glabrum by Raven (1962), for plants with glandular hairs and no pubescence, respectively. The fieldwork needed to clarify those patterns has not yet been done, so we will adopt Raven's treatment in order to call attention to this interesting problem. A collection from Kashmir (Baltistan, Kiris to Parkutta, 2406m, 20.8.1940, Stewart 20904, RAW) is a hybrid between E. royleanum and E. tibetanum, with very sterile capsules and intermediate morphology. Fl. Per.: Jul-Sep. Fr. Per.: Jul-Oct.