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Pakistan | Family List | Euphorbiaceae | Euphorbia

47. Euphorbia thyrsoidea Boiss. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 164. 1862. Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind., 5: 265. 1887; Stewart, Ann. Cat. Vasc. Pl. W. Pak. & Kashm. 454. 1972.


  • Euphorbia swatensis Kitamura

    An erect glabrous perennial herb up to 90 on tall, but more usually 30-50 cm tall, with several flowering-stems arising from a woody rootstock. Stem-leaves alternate, sessile; leaf-blades lanceolate, 2-6.5 (-10) x 0.4-1.3 (-2.5) cm, acute, subacute or obtuse at the apex, rounded, cuneate or sometimes attenuate at the base, entire or subentire, penninerved with several closely-arranged nerve-pairs beneath. Pseudumbel 5-8 (-11)-rayed, the rays only once bifid; several axillary rays developed closely below the pseudumbel, giving a thyrsiform appearance to the whole inflorescence; pseudumbel leaves 5-8 (-11), whorled, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, much shorter than the stem-leaves, ray-leaves opposite, ovate-deltoid, 7-9 (-13) x 8-10 (-15) mm, subacute or obtuse at the apex, rounded to truncate at the base. Cyathia shortly pedunculate. Glands semi-circular, truncate on the outer edge and with 2 slender, subulate, sometimes ± convergent horns in length equalling the width of the glands arising from the corners; glands reddish-purple, the horns pale straw-coloured. Ovary trilobate, smooth; mature fruit not known. Styles erect or spreading, 1.5-2 mm long, united for c. ½ their length, shortly bifid, the stigmas slightly thickened. Seeds not known.

    Fl. Per.: Jul. Fr. Per.: ? Sept. - Oct.

    Holotype: ? Kashmir, ‘N.W. Himalaya’, V. Jacquemont 486 (P).

    Distribution: Endemic. In sunny medows, 8500'/2590 m. - 9000'/2740 m.

    Stewart l.c., 1972, erroneously refers to the ‘esula – pilosa’ complex; this is not a complex, for esula and pilosa belong to different sections of the genus. Euphorbia thyrsoidea belongs to the esula complex, all of which have 2-homed glands. The Duthie (Inayat) specimen cited by him will be found here cited under Euphorbia cornigera Boiss. of the pilosa complex.

    (48. - 50. E. vrgata agg.)

    Erect, glabrous, somewhat glaucous perennial herbs up to 140 cm tall, but more usually 30-70 cm tall, with several stems arising from a vertical, oblique or ± horizontal rootstock. Stem-leaves alternate, sessile, subsessile or very shortly-petiolate; leaf-blades from linear to linear-lanceolate, linear-oblong or ovate- lanceolate, broadest below the middle or else ± parallel-sided, 1-7 (-11) cm x 2-7 (-13) mm, acute, subacute or obtuse at the apex, abruptly attenuate, cuneate, rounded or shallowly cordate at the base, entire or subentire, obscurely palmi- and penninerved. Pseudumbel 5-, 8-, 10-, 12-, 16- or 20-rayed, the rays not or once bifid, usually with several axillary rays below the pseudumbel, and usually with a number of axillary leafy-shoots arising below these; pseudumbel leaves 5, 8, 10, 12, 16 or 20, whorled, resembling the upper stem-leaves but usually rather shorter and broader; ray-leaves opposite, transversely elliptic, reniform, deltoid, ovate-rhombic or suborbicular, shorter and broader than the pseudumbel-leaves. Cyathia senile or subsessile, the one terminating the main axis usually pedunculate, broadly campanulate. Glands crescentic, with the horns broad and triangular or narrow and subulate, divergent or convergent, yellowish.ochreous. Fruit rounded-trilobate, (3-) 4-5 x (4-) 5-6 mm, granulate on the keels, otherwise smooth, pale green. Styles at first erect, later divaricate, (1) 1.5-2 mm long, united for 1/3 their length, bifid, the stigmas slightly thickened. Seeds ovoid, 2.5 x 1.5 x 13 mm, smooth, pale grey, sometimes brownish-flecked, with a small subterminal depressed-conical ventrally excavate caruncle.

    Pakistani material referable to this aggregate has been ascribed to several members of it, notably the following:


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