Mastigophora Nees, Naturg. Europ. Leberm. 3: 89. 1883.
[Greek mastix, whip, and phora, carrying, referring to flagelliform branch apices]
W. B. Schofield
Plants in loose rusty or orange-brown to nearly black mats of erect, reclining to semi-erect or arching shoots, regularly to irregularly pinnate or 2-prinnate, the branch apices frequently attenuate and flagelliform; rhizoids absent or scarce, confined to leaves at apices of flagelliform branches. Leaves of stem incubous to transverse, asymmetrical, convex, postical lobes of stem leaves acuminate to ciliate, leaf cells with large, nodular, sometimes confluent trigones; branch leaves also asymmetric but usually unequally 2-lobed; oil bodies spherical, elliptical or fusiform; underleaves 1/2 size of lateral and 2--4 lobed with broadly recurved lateral margins and sinus gibbous; paraphyllia usually scarce, forked or simple. Sexual condition dioicous. Specialized asexual reproduction absent. Sporophytes unknown in Northern Hemisphere.
Species 4 (1 in the flora): disjunctive between w North America, w Europe, se Asia, and Pacific Islands (New Zealand); terrestrial or epiphytic, cliffs, peatland, predominantly in high-moisture temperate to subtropical climates, 0--4000 m.