Description from Flora of China
Aceranthus C. Morren & Decaisne; Vindicta Rafinesque.
Herbs, perennial, deciduous or evergreen. Rhizome sympodial, short or horizontally creeping, stout. Stems solitary or caespitose, glabrous, squamate at base. Leaves basal or cauline, simple or compound; petioles of basal leaves longer than those of cauline; leaflets ovate, ovate-lanceolate, or suborbicular, basally cordate, lateral lobes asymmetric, with outer basal lobe longer than inner, usually spiny on margin, apex acute or acuminate. Flowering stem leafless or with 1-4 leaves, opposite or rarely alternate. Inflorescence simple or compound, with terminal raceme or panicle, few or many flowered, glabrous or glandular. Flowers dimerous. Sepals 8 in 2 whorls; inner sepals petaloid. Petals 4, flat, or saccate and prolonged outward into nectariferous pouches or spurs shorter or longer than sepals. Stamens 4, opposite petals; filaments glabrous; anthers dehiscing by 2 oblong valves, curling upward; pollen grains elliptic, smooth, with 3 longitudinal furrows. Ovary with parietal placentation; ovules 6-15; style slender; stigma slightly dilated. Capsule loculicidal. Seeds with conspicuous fleshy aril. 2n = 12.
See Stearn, The Genus Epimedium and Other Herbaceous Berberidaceae [hereafter Gen. Epimedium]. 2002.
Epimedium cavaleriei H. Léveillé (Cat. Pl. Yun-Nan, 18. 1916) is a synonym of Stauntonia cavalerieana Gagnepain (Bull. Soc. Bot. France 55: 47. 1908) in the Lardizabalaceae (see Fl. China 6: 452. 2001).
Also see post-FOC publication: Zhang, Y. J. et al. 2011. A taxonomic revision of unifoliate Chinese Epimedium L. (Berberidaceae). Kew Bull. 66: 253-262.
Insufficiently known species
- Epimedium baojingense Q. L. Chen & B. M. Yang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 20: 482. 1982 ["baojingensis"].
Epimedium baojingense is known only from the type gathering (Hunan: Baojing County, Lüdong Shan, 23 Apr 1956, B. M. Yang 34, holotype, HNNU). As mentioned by Stearn (Gen. Epimedium, 113. 2002), E. baojingense has stem leaves with only a single leaflet, as in E. simplicifolium. It is reported to differ from E. simplicifolium by having a simple inflorescence with dark yellow hairs.
- Epimedium campanulatum Ogisu, Kew Bull. 51: 401. 1996.
According to the author, Epimedium campanulatum is morphologically similar to E. ecalcaratum G. Y. Zhong and E. platypetalum K. I. Meyer. Epimedium campanulatum is reported to differ from E. ecalcaratum in having 1 or 2 leaves per flowering stem, and basal and cauline leaves with only 3, never 5 or 7, leaflets. Epimedium campanulatum differs from E. platypetalum in having compact or shortly creeping rhizomes and compound, rarely simple, inflorescences. It flowers in mid to late May and occurs at ca. 2000 m in Sichuan (Dujiangyan).
- Epimedium grandiflorum C. Morren, Belgique Hort. 2: 141. 1852.
Epimedium grandiflorum was described from cultivated plants brought to Belgium (Ghent) from Japan by Philipp Franz von Siebold in 1830. Stearn includes in the range of E. grandiflorum "southern Manchuria," but we have seen no specimens from China. The reports of E. grandiflorum in the Flora of Anhui (see X. H. Qian, Fl. Anhui 2: 346. 1986) and Flora of Zhejiang (see C. S. Ding, Fl. Zhejiang 2: 307-320. 1992) are probably based on plants here treated as E. koreanum.
- Epimedium jingzhouense G. H. Xia & G. Y. Li, Nordic J. Bot. 27: 472. 2009.
Epimedium jingzhouense is known only from the type gathering (Hunan: Jingzhou County, Pukou village, 300 m, 8 Apr 2008, Xia et al. s.n., holotype, ZJFC).
- Epimedium pseudowushanense B. L. Guo, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 45: 814. 2007.
According to the authors, Epimedium pseudowushanense is morphologically similar to E. wushanense but differs in flower structure. It differs from E. mikinorii in having leaves abaxially villous and glaucous, more slender spurs, 10-15 mm, inner sepals broadly ovate or ovate, and purplish or yellow petals with purple lamina. Its flowering time is from Mar-Apr, fruiting is in May, and it occurs at 900-1400 m in Guangxi and Guizhou.
- Epimedium pudingense S. Z. He, Y. Y. Wang & B. L. Guo, Ann. Bot. Fenn. 47: 226. 2010.
Epimedium pudingense is known only from the type gathering (Guizhou: Puding County, 1300 m, 13 Apr 1995, S. Z. He 95413, holotype, HGCM).
- Epimedium qingchengshanense G. Y. Zhong & B. L. Guo, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 45: 817. 2007.
Epimedium qingchengshanense is reported to differ from E. fargesii in having smaller flowers but larger rounded petal lamina and purple filaments. Its flowering time is from May-Jun and it occurs at 900-1500 m in Sichuan (Qingcheng Shan).
- Epimedium shennongjiaense Yan J. Zhang & J. Q. Li, Novon 19: 567. 2009 ["shennongjiaensis"].
Epimedium shennongjiaense is known only from the type gathering (Hubei: cultivated at Wuhan Botanical Garden from material collected at Muyuping, Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, 30 Mar 2007, Y. J. Zhang 148, holotype, HIB; isotype, HIB).
About 50 species: China, India (W Himalaya), Japan, Korea, Russia (Far East), S Europe, and N Africa; 41 species (40 endemic) in China; eight additional species (seven endemic) are insufficiently known.
(Authors: Ying Junsheng (应俊生 Ying Tsun-shen); David E. Boufford, Anthony R. Brach)