27. Arctotis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 922. 1753; Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 394. 1754.
African-daisy [Greek arktos, brown bear, and ous, otos, ear, perhaps alluding to shape of pappus scales]
Alison McKenzie Mahoney
Annuals or perennials [subshrubs], [5–]10–100 cm (hirsute to arachnose or woolly, sometimes glandular as well). Stems erect [decumbent]. Leaves basal and/or cauline; petiolate or sessile; blades mostly spatulate to oblanceolate, margins entire, sinuate-dentate, or pinnately lobed, abaxial faces tomentose to sparsely arachnose. Involucres hemispheric to campanulate, 10–25 mm diam. Phyllaries in 3–6+ series, distinct, outer linear to oblong, inner ovate to elliptic, margins ± scarious. Receptacles flat, alveolate (pit margins often ciliate), epaleate. Ray florets pistillate, fertile (staminodes often present); corollas white, cream, yellow, orange, pink, purple, violet, or blue (sometimes dark abaxially), laminae 4-veined, 3-toothed. Disc florets usually bisexual and fertile, sometimes functionally staminate; corollas yellow or brown to violet or purple. Cypselae ovoid to obovoid, abaxial faces ± rounded, 3–5-ribbed or -winged (wings sometimes toothed and inflexed into 2 longitudinal grooves), adaxial faces flattened, apices sometimes forming callous borders, faces (smooth or transversely rugose) glabrous or pilose to sericeous; pappi usually present, persistent, usually of 5–8 ovate to oblong scales in 2 series, sometimes coroniform, sometimes none. x = 9.
Species ca. 60 (2 in the flora): introduced; s Africa, cultivated and/or introduced elsewhere.