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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 27 | Calymperaceae

1. Syrrhopodon Schwägrichen, Sp. Musc. Frond. Suppl. 2(12): 110. 1824.

[Greek syrrepo, to close the eye, and odon, tooth, alluding to narrow, connivent, horizontal peristome teeth of some species closing capsule mouth upon drying]

Plants small to medium-sized, gregarious to tufted or caespitose, green to yellowish brown, sometimes with pink tinge. Stems erect. Leaves sometimes dimorphic with vegetative leaves mostly grading into gemmiferous leaves, teniolae absent (teniola-like features rarely present in a few taxa); margins of distal lamina mostly thickened and toothed, rarely 1-stratose, in many taxa regularly bordered entirely or in part with elongate hyaline cells; costa showing two bands of stereids in cross section; medial leaf cells isodiametric. Specialized asexual reproduction by gemmae common on often modified leaves, borne on apices or adaxially and sometimes abaxially along costa of distal lamina, clavate-fusiform or filamentous. Sexual condition mostly dioicous, rarely apparently monoicous. Seta single, rarely 2-3 per perichaetium. Capsule mostly exserted, sometimes immersed, mostly cylindric; peristome present or absent. Calyptra deciduous, mostly cucullate, rarely conic-mitrate.

Species ca. 80-90 (6 in the flora): worldwide except Antarctica, mostly tropical and subtropical regions.

Syrrhopodon is characterized by its erect stems, leaves bordered with hyaline cells or with thickened and toothed margins, cancellinae, and mostly cucullate calyptra. It differs consistently from Calymperes in the latter character. Gemmae are not as uniformly present in species of Syrrhopodon as in Calymperes.


Reese, W. D. 1987. World ranges, implications for patterns of historical dispersal and speciation, and comments on phylogeny of Syrrhopodon (Calymperaceae). Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 45: 426-445.

1 Leaves without border of elongate hyaline cells.   6 Syrrhopodon incompletus
+ Leaves bordered entirely or in part with elongate hyaline cells   (2)
2 (1) Leaves regularly conspicuously toothed at shoulders.   1 Syrrhopodon texanus
+ Leaves entire or irregularly and inconspicuously toothed at shoulders   (3)
3 (2) Leaves completely bordered all around with hyaline cells   (4)
+ Leaves incompletely bordered; hyaline cells absent on portions of the margins   (5)
4 (3) Distal lamina more or less crispate when dry, folded when moist.   2 Syrrhopodon gaudichaudii
+ Distal lamina straight or somewhat contorted when dry but never crispate, plane when moist.   3 Syrrhopodon prolifer
5 (3) Distal lamina ligulate; cancellinae rounded distally.   4 Syrrhopodon ligulatus
+ Distal lamina acuminate; cancellinae narrowly acute.   5 Syrrhopodon parasiticus

Lower Taxa


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