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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 9 | Rosaceae | Malus

7. Malus baccata (Linnaeus) Borkhausen, Theor. Prakt. Handb. Forstbot. 2: 1280. 1803.

Siberian crabapple, pommier de Sibérie

Pyrus baccata Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12, 2: 344. 1767; Mant. Pl. 1: 75. 1767

Trees, 100–140 dm. Stems to 30 cm diam.; bark dark gray with platelike scales; young branches reddish orange and glabrous, becoming reddish brown; flowering shoots becoming spurs, 3–10(–25) mm. Buds reddish brown, ovoid, 3–4 mm, scale margins tomentose. Leaves convolute in bud; isomorphic; stipules deciduous or persistent on vigorous shoot leaves, lanceolate, sometimes filiform, 3 mm, apex acuminate; petiole 20–50 mm, glabrous; blade elliptic or ovate, 3–8 × 2–3.5 cm, base cuneate or rounded, margins unlobed, serrate, apex long-acuminate, sometimes caudate, surfaces glabrous or slightly puberulent when young. Panicles umbel-like; peduncles absent; bracteoles absent. Pedicels 15–40 mm, glabrous. Flowers ˂not fragrant˃, 30–35 mm diam.; hypanthium ˂constricted distal to ovaries˃, glabrous; sepals lanceolate, 5–7 mm, longer than tube, apex acuminate, abaxial surface glabrous, adaxial tomentose; petals white, obovate, 20–30 mm, claws 1–2 mm, margins entire, apex obtuse rounded; stamens 15–20, 7–9 mm, anthers yellow before dehiscence; styles (4 or)5, basally connate to 1/2 length, 8–10 mm, longer than stamens, densely villous basally. Pomes yellow to red, subglobose, 8–10 mm diam., cores enclosed at apex; sepals deciduous; sclereids sparse surrounding core. Seeds light reddish brown. 2n = 34.

Flowering Apr–Jun; fruiting Sep–Oct. Roadsides, pastures, mixed woods, thickets; 0–1500 m; introduced; N.B., N.S., Ont.; Conn., Ill., Ky., Maine, Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Va., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.; Asia; introduced also in Europe.

Malus baccata is grown ornamentally for flowers and fruit (red or yellow) and occasionally escapes from cultivation. The species is used as a rootstock for grafting other apple cultivars and is a possible genetic source of disease resistance and cold hardiness. The species is possibly naturalized in Honduras.


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