21. Platanthera psycodes (Linnaeus) Lindley, Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 294. 1835.
Orchis psycodes Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 943. 1753; Habenaria psycodes (Linnaeus) Sprengel
Plants 14–101 cm. Leaves 2–5, wide-spreading, recurved to somewhat ascending, scattered along stem, gradually reduced to bracts distally; blade lanceolate, oblong-elliptic, or oblong-obovate, 5–22 × 1.5–7 cm. Spikes lax to very dense. Flowers resupinate, showy, lavender- to rose-purple, rarely white; lateral sepals reflexed to somewhat spreading; petals spatulate to broadly obovate or cuneate-oblong, margins dentate-lacerate to sparsely fringed; lip descending to somewhat porrect, deeply 3-lobed, without basal thickening, 5–13 × 5–17 mm, distal margins of lobes fringed, sometimes deeply, lateral lobes often reflexed or slightly elevated above middle lobe, broadly to narrowly cuneate, middle lobe sometimes reflexed, broadly cuneate-flabellate, often emarginate to 2-fid; spur slenderly cylindric to slightly clavate, 12–22 mm; rostellum lobes nearly parallel, directed downward, short, rounded; pollinaria nearly straight; pollinia remaining enclosed within anther sacs; viscidia suborbiculate to broadly elliptic; ovary slender to stout, 9–16 mm. 2n = 42.
Flowering Jun--Aug(--Sep). Alluvial and swamp forests, stream banks, riparian meadows, moist and seeping slopes, marshes, roadside banks, ditches, old fields; 0--2000 m; Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que.; Conn., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Ky., Maine, Mass., Mich., Minn., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.
Platanthera psycodes is known to hybridize with P. lacera in the northeasternmost portion of its range, where the species bloom simultaneously. Such hybrids are known as P. × andrewsii (M. White) Luer; see the discussion under P. lacera. A few specimens also suggest very rare hybridization with P. grandiflora.