2b. Fragaria virginiana Miller subsp. glauca (S. Watson) Staudt, Canad. J. Bot. 40: 881. 1962.
Fragaria virginiana var. glauca S. Watson, Botany (Fortieth Parallel), 85. 1871; F. glauca (S. Watson) Rydberg; F. multicipita Fernald; F. terrae-novae Rydberg; F. virginiana var. terrae-novae (Rydberg) Fernald & Wiegand
Stolons usually appressed ascending-hairy, sometimes almost glabrous. Leaves: petiole usually appressed-ascending-hairy, sometimes almost glabrous; leaflet blade dark green to bluish green, glaucous, terminal leaflets usually oblong-ovate to cuneate, sometimes roundish, not leathery, margins sharply serrate throughout, teeth: relative number 0.1–0.5. Peduncles and pedicels usually appressed ascending-hairy, sometimes almost glabrous. Flowers 11.5–17.7 mm diam. (pistillate), 16–25.5 mm diam. (bisexual and staminate). Fruits: bractlets clasping, spreading, or ± reflexed. 2n = 56.
Flowering spring and fall. Moist to dry sites, open forests, forest edges, hedges, fields, roadsides, railroad embankments, often ruderal; 0–3400 m; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.W.T., N.S., Nunavut, Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon; Alaska, Ariz., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Mass., Minn., Mont., N.H., N.Mex., N.Y., N.Dak., R.I., S.Dak., Utah, Vt., Wis., Wyo.
It is assumed that after the maximum glaciation, recolonization of most glaciated areas by subsp. glauca spread from the Alaska-Yukon refugium eastward to Hudson Bay, Newfoundland, and the New England states and, perhaps from a putative Rocky Mountains refuge northward to the Yukon and eastward to the Great Lakes area (G. Staudt 1999).