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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 22 | Juncaceae

1g. Juncus subg. Septati Buchenau, Abhandlungen herausgegeben vom naturwissenschaftlichen Vereine zu Bremen. 4: 406. 1875.

Juncus sect. Septati (Buchenau) Vierhapper

Herbs, perennial (rarely annual), rhizomatous. Culms terete. Leaves basal and cauline: blade terete, nearly terete, or flattened, perfectly septate. Inflorescences terminal panicles or racemes of 2 to --many heads, a single terminal head, or rarely a cyme of heads, sympodial; bracts erect or ascending, flat, involute or terete; bracteoles absent. Flowers in multiflowered heads (rarely only 2-- or 3 flowers per head). Capsules 1- or 3-locular, beaked. Seeds tailed or not tailed. x = 20.

Species ca. 80 (32 in the flora): worldwide.


1 Seeds tailed, 0.7--2.6 mm, including tails; seed body covered with whitish translucent veil.   (2)
+ Seeds not tailed, 0.3--0.7 mm; seed body clear yellow-brown.   (7)
       
2 (1) Seeds 1.8--2.6 mm, including tails; stamens usually 6.   (3)
+ Seeds 0.7--1.9 mm, including tails; stamens usually 3.   (4)
       
3 (2) Stems and leaves scabrous; auricles 1--7.5 mm   64 Juncus caesariensis
+ Stems and leaves smooth; auricles 0.2--0.4 mm   65 Juncus trigonocarpus
       
4 (2) Seeds 1.1--1.9 mm; heads 5--50-flowered; inflorescence branches erect to ascending   66 Juncus canadensis
+ Seeds 0.7--1.2 mm; heads 2--8-flowered or if to 20-flowered then proximal inflorescence branches widely spreading (J. subcaudatus).   (5)
       
5 (4) Outer tepals obtuse to nearly acute   67 Juncus brachycephalus
+ Outer tepals acuminate to acute.   (6)
       
6 (5) Proximal inflorescence branches widely spreading   68 Juncus subcaudatus
+ Proximal inflorescence branches erect   69 Juncus brevicaudatus
       
7 (1) Flowers 1--2(--4) at each node, not in heads; capsules fertile only below middle.   (8)
+ Flowers in heads of 3--60; capsules fertile throughout or only below middle.   (9)
       
8 (7) Culms erect, 0.3--7 dm, not forming mats   70 Juncus pelocarpus
+ Culms decumbent, 0.1--1 dm, forming mats   71 Juncus subtilis
       
9 (7) Heads spheric or nearly spheric, 15--60-flowered   (10)
+ Heads obconic to hemispheric, 3--15-flowered.   (23)
       
10 (9) Stamens 6.   (18)
+ Stamens 3.   (11)
       
11 (10) Plants cespitose; tepals lanceolate   85 Juncus acuminatus
+ Plants rhizomatous; tepals lance-subulate.   (12)
       
12 (11) Capsules included   83 Juncus brachycarpus
+ Capsule exserted to slightly included.   (13)
       
13 (12) Capsules remaining united at apex after dehiscence.   (14)
+ Capsule valves separating at apex during dehiscence.   (16)
       
14 (13) Leaves laterally compressed, 3--5 mm diam.   79b var. fascinatus
+ Leaves terete, 1--4 mm diam.   (15)
       
15 (14) Heads sometimes spheric, usually lobed; tepals green to stramineous, nearly equal; uppermost cauline leaf blade (below inflorescence bract) equaling or longer than its sheath   78 Juncus scirpoides
+ Heads spheric; stramineous to reddish brown, inner tepals shorter than outer; uppermost cauline leaf blade much shorter than its sheath   77 Juncus megacephalus
       
16 (13) Tepals 4--5 mm; leaves laterally compressed   79a var. validus
+ Tepals 2.9--4 mm; leaves terete.   (17)
       
17 (16) Capsules 3.5--5 mm, exserted; culms 0.4--3 dm   80 Juncus nodosus
+ Capsules 3--3.5 mm; equaling perianth or slightly shorter; culms 2.5--8.5 dm   84 Juncus bolanderi
       
18 (10) Tepals lanceolate to lance-ovate, light green to light pink or white or dark purplish brown; capsule ovoid to obovoid, 1.9--3.5 mm; heads 1--2 per inflorescence (15--50 for J. pervetus).   (19)
+ Tepals lance-subulate, green to stramineous; capsule lance-subulate, 3.2--6.5 mm; heads 1--23 per inflorescence.   (21)
       
19 (18) Heads 15--50   74 Juncus pervetus
+ Heads 1--2.   (20)
       
20 (19) Tepals dark purplish brown to black; anthers 1/4 to equal filament length   90 Juncus mertensianus
+ Tepals light green, or light pink to white; anthers 2--3 times length of filaments   91 Juncus chlorocephalus
       
21 (18) Outer tepals 2.4--4.1 mm, equaling inner tepals; auricles 0.5--1.7 mm   80 Juncus nodosus
+ Outer tepals 4--6 mm, outer and inner tepals unequal in length; auricles 1--4 mm.   (22)
       
22 (21) Outer tepals longer than inner; capsule 4.3--5.7 mm   81 Juncus torreyi
+ Outer tepals shorter than inner; capsules 5.2--6.5 mm   82 Juncus texanus
       
23 (9) Stamens 3.   (24)
+ Stamens 6.   (31)
       
24 (23) Stems creeping or floating, capillary; filiform, submersed leaves often formed before flowering; inflorescences with 1--9 heads.   (25)
+ Stems erect, not floating; filiform leaves absent; inflorescences with 3--200 heads.   (26)
       
25 (24) Capsule rounded at apex, 2.5--4 mm; tepals 2--3.6 mm, obtuse to acute   76 Juncus bulbosus
+ Capsule acute to acuminate at apex, 3.5--6.1 mm; tepals 2.8--5.5 mm, acute to acuminate-subulate   75 Juncus supiniformis
       
26 (24) Capsule much longer than perianth, 1.3--2 times perianth length.   (27)
+ Capsule equaling or just exceeding perianth.   (29)
       
27 (26) Capsules beaked; plants often decumbent or matted   75 Juncus supiniformis
+ Capsules not beaked; plants erect.   (28)
       
28 (27) Capsule 1/3 longer than perianth, 2.8--4.2 mm   86 Juncus debilis
+ Capsule twice as long as perianth, 4--5.2 mm   87 Juncus diffusissimus
       
29 (26) Heads 5--50; tepals 2.6--3.5 mm, nearly equal; capsules 2.8--3.5 mm   85 Juncus acuminatus
+ Heads 30--250; tepals 1.7--2.9 mm, inner tepals shorter than outer tepals; capsules 1.9--2.9 mm.   (30)
       
30 (29) Leaf blade with prominent and conspicuous ringlike bands at position of cross partitions; roots without terminal tubers; inner tepals 1.7--2.1 mm   88 Juncus nodatus
+ Leaf blade with faint ringlike bands at position of septa; roots often with terminal tubers; inner tepals 2.4--2.8 mm   89 Juncus elliottii
       
31 (23) Stems creeping or floating, capillary; filiform, submersed leaves often formed before flowering; inflorescences with 1--9 heads.   (32)
+ Stems erect; filiform submersed leaves not formed except in J. militaris; heads 1--66.   (34)
       
32 (31) Auricles 0.8--2.1 mm; capsules 3.5--6.1 mm   75 Juncus supiniformis
+ Auricles 0.4--1 mm; capsules 2.5--4 mm.   (33)
       
33 (32) Capsules exserted about 1 mm beyond perianth; apex acute below beak; outer tepals acute to acuminate   95 Juncus articulatus
+ Capsules as long as tepals or exserted to 0.5 mm beyond tepals, apex obtuse below apex; outer tepals acute to obtuse   76 Juncus bulbosus
       
34 (31) Proximal culm leaf overtopping inflorescences, distal culm leaf usually inflated, bladeless sheath; often developing filiform (hairlike) leaves off rhizome in running water   72 Juncus militaris
+ Proximal culm leaf shorter than inflorescence, distal culm leaf usually with blade, sheath not inflated; not developing filiform leaves off rhizome.   (35)
       
35 (34) Tepals 1.6--3 mm; apex obtuse to acuminate, usually not subulate mucronate; anthers shorter than to equaling filaments.   (36)
+ Tepals 2.3--6.2 mm; apex usually acuminate with subulate mucro (acute in J. acutiflorus; anthers equaling or longer than filaments.   (37)
       
36 (35) Inner tepals obtuse; inflorescence stiffly erect   94 Juncus alpinoarticulatus
+ Inner tepals acuminate; inflorescence spreading   95 Juncus articulatus
       
37 (35) Capsule abruptly contracted at apex, usually not exserted   92 Juncus nevadensis
+ Capsule narrowed to beak, exserted at least slightly.   (38)
       
38 (37) Heads 2--9; tepals 2.8--5.5 mm   75 Juncus supiniformis
+ Heads 25--66; tepals 2.5--3.5 mm.   (39)
       
39 (38) Tepals nearly equal; heads with 6--10 flowers   93 Juncus dubius
+ Tepals unequal, outer shorter than inner; heads with 5--8 flowers   73 Juncus acutiflorus


 

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