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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 21 | Asteraceae

346. Harmonia B. G. Baldwin, Novon. 9: 463. 1999.

[For Harvey Monroe Hall, 1874–1932, Californian botanist]

Bruce G. Baldwin, John L. Strother

Annuals, 5–40 cm. Stems erect. Leaves mostly cauline; proximal opposite, distal alternate; sessile; blades linear, margins entire or toothed, faces usually hirsute, sometimes minutely stipitate-glandular as well (glands usually black, sometimes yellowish). Heads radiate, borne singly or in loose, ± umbelliform to corymbiform arrays. Peduncular bracts: pit-glands, tack-glands, and spines 0. Involucres obovoid to obconic, 2–5+ mm diam. Phyllaries 3–8 in 1 series (lanceolate to oblanceolate, herbaceous, strongly conduplicate, each wholly enveloping a ray ovary). Receptacles flat to convex, glabrous or setulose, paleate (paleae falling, in 1 series between rays and discs, distinct or weakly connate, phyllary-like, more scarious). Ray florets usually 3–8, pistillate, fertile; corollas bright yellow (laminae flabelliform to obovate). Disc florets 7–30, bisexual and fertile or functionally staminate (sometimes in same head); corollas bright yellow, tubes shorter than narrowly funnelform throats, lobes 5, deltate (anthers yellowish to brownish; styles glabrous proximal to branches). Ray cypselae (black) terete to ± compressed, weakly arcuate, gibbous or not, beaked or beakless, glabrous; pappi 0 or of 3–12 lanceolate to subulate, fimbrillate to plumose scales. Disc cypselae (black) ± terete, ± clavate, glabrous or hairy; pappi of 7–11 lance-attenuate, linear, oblong, quadrate, or subulate, fimbriate, fimbrillate, or plumose scales. x = 9.

Species 5 (5 in the flora): California.

Members of Harmonia occur in mountains of northwestern California, as far south as the northern San Francisco Bay area. All but H. nutans are known only from serpentine exposures and are probably descended from a common, serpentine-endemic ancestor (B. G. Baldwin 2001). Harmonia has been treated in Madia, which is more closely related to Carlquistia than to Harmonia (B. G. Baldwin 1996). See Baldwin (2001) for discussion of phylogeny within Harmonia.


Baldwin, B. G. 2001. Harmonia guggolziorum (Compositae–Madiinae), a new tarweed from ultramafics of southern Mendocino County, California. Madroño 48: 293–297.

1 Heads usually reflexed in bud and fruit; ray pappi 0; disc pappi of lance-attenuate, fimbrillatescales 2–3.7 mm   1 Harmonia nutans
+ Heads usually erect in bud and fruit; ray pappi 0.2–1.5 mm; disc pappi of lanceolate, linear, oblong, quadrate, or subulate, fimbriate or plumose scales 0.2–3.5 mm   (2)
2 (1) Leaves ± evenly distributed on stems; ray cypselae strongly gibbous (bowed abaxially), beaked (beaks 0.4–0.5 mm); disc florets functionally staminate   3 Harmonia doris-nilesiae
+ Leaves unevenly distributed, mostly along primary (central) stems and immediately proximal to branches supporting heads; ray cypselae slightly or not gibbous, beakless (pappi elevated adaxially 0.1–0.2 mm in H. stebbinsii); disc florets (some or all) bisexual, fertile   (3)
3 (2) Phyllaries densely white-villous near folded edges; ray cypselae slightly gibbous; disc pappi of linear-attenuate to subulate, plumose scales 1.2–3.5 mm   4 Harmonia stebbinsii
+ Phyllaries hirsute and/or hirtellous near folded edges; ray cypselae not gibbous; disc pappi of lanceolate, linear, oblong, or quadrate, fimbriate scales 0.2–0.8 mm   (4)
4 (3) Proximal, unbranched portions of primary (central) stems usually shorter than branches supporting heads (distal leaves of primary stems densely congested); disc pappi of oblong or quadrate scales 0.2–0.5 mm   5 Harmonia hallii
+ Proximal, unbranched portions of primary (central) stems usually longer than branches supporting heads (distal leaves of primary stems not densely congested);disc pappi of lanceolate to linear scales 0.6–0.8 mm   2 Harmonia guggolziorum

Lower Taxa


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