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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 7 | Salicaceae

2a. Salix Linnaeus subg. Protitea Kimura, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo). 42: 290. 1928.

Shrubs or trees, 1-30 m, not clonal, or clonal by stem fragmentation. Stems usually erect; branches flexible to highly brittle at base or throughout, glaucous or not. Buds alba-type, scale margins distinct, overlapping. Leaves: stipules on early ones usually rudimentary, sometimes absent or foliaceous, on late leaves foliaceous, rarely rudimentary (deciduous early or autumn); petiole usually deeply grooved adaxially (except S. floridana), not usually glandular distally (sometimes with basilaminar, spherical, or foliaceous glands); largest medial blade usually hypostomatous, sometimes amphistomatous, narrowly oblong, oblong, narrowly ovate, lorate, lanceolate, narrowly elliptic, or linear, 2.5-13 times as long as wide, angles of base and apex less than 90o, surface hairs usually white, sometimes also ferruginous; juvenile blade hairs white, sometimes also ferruginous. Catkins usually flowering as leaves emerge (sometimes throughout season, axillary, sessile in S. bonplandiana), from lateral buds; staminate from flowering branchlet, slender to stout; pistillate from flowering branchlet, usually loosely flowered, slender to stout; floral bract usually tawny, sometimes greenish, apex entire, erose, 2-fid, or irregularly toothed; pistillate bract deciduous (persistent in S. floridana, sometimes S. bonplandiana) after flowering. Staminate flowers: abaxial nectary present; stamens 3-7[-9]; filaments usually distinct, sometimes connate less than 1/2 their lengths, usually hairy basally, sometimes on proximal 1/2; anthers yellow, usually globose. Pistillate flowers: abaxial nectary absent, (adaxial nectary shorter than stipe); ovary not glaucous, usually glabrous, sometimes villous, beak slightly bulged below or tapering to styles; ovules 4-24 per ovary; styles usually connate, sometimes distinct distally; stigmas usually flat, abaxially non-papillate, tip usually rounded, or stigmas slenderly cylindrical, or 2 plump lobes.

Species 33 (7 species in the flora): North America, Mexico, West Indies, Central America, Asia.

1 Largest medial blades: abaxial surface not glaucous; pistillate bracts deciduous after flowering   (2)
+ Largest medial blades: abaxial surface glaucous; pistillate bracts deciduous or persistent after flowering   (4)
2 (1) Largest medial blades usually linear, 10-28.6 times as long as wide, adaxial surface dull; stipules on late leaves usually rudimentary; ovaries with distinct, often raised veins   Salix humboldtiana [p. 34]
+ Largest medial blades narrowly elliptic or narrowly lanceolate, sometimes linear, 4.7-13.2 times as long as wide, adaxial surface slightly glossy; stipules on late leaves usually foliaceous; ovaries without distinct, raised veins   (3)
3 (2) Branches red-brown to yellow-brown; capsules 3-5 mm; stipules on early leaves rudimentary or foliaceous, on late leaves usually foliaceous, apex usually acuminate or acute, glands few or absent adaxially; ovaries usually glabrous, rarely pilose; anthers with strongly recurved axes; branches highly brittle at base; pistillate adaxial nectaries oblong (swollen).   5 Salix nigra
+ Branches yellow-brown to gray-brown; capsules 6-7 mm; stipules on early leaves broad rudiments or foliaceous, on late leaves foliaceous, apex rounded to convex, glands numerous adaxially; ovaries usually glabrous, sometimes villous; anthers with straight axes; branches flexible to ± brittle at base; pistillate adaxial nectaries square (flattened).   6 Salix gooddingii
4 (1) Pistillate bracts persistent after flowering   (5)
+ Pistillate bracts deciduous after flowering   (6)
5 (4) Largest medial blades 38-55 mm wide, 2.5-4 times as long as wide, bases rounded to cordate, margins usually spinulose-serrulate, abaxial surface tomentose, adaxial highly glossy; petioles glandular-lobed distally; stipes 3.2-5.6 mm; styles 0.3-0.4 mm; Alabama, Florida, Georgia [2a1. Salix sect. Floridanae].   1 Salix floridana
+ Largest medial blades 7-27 mm wide, 4.5-10.7 times as long as wide, bases cuneate to convex, margins serrulate to crenulate, or entire, abaxial surface glabrous or glabrescent, adaxial dull or slightly glossy; petioles usually not glandular, rarely with spherical glands distally; stipes 0.4-2.4 mm; styles 0.2-0.3 mm; Arizona.   2 Salix bonplandiana
6 (4) Branches, branchlets, petioles, and leaves glabrous; largest medial blades sometimes amphistomatous, adaxial surface dull; stigmas 0.24-0.4 mm.   7 Salix amygdaloides
+ Branches, branchlets, petioles, and leaves hairy, sometimes glabrate; largest medial blades hypostomatous, adaxial surface slightly to highly glossy; stigmas 0.16-0.28 mm   (7)
7 (6) Largest medial blades: margins often entire, sometimes crenulate or serrulate; stipules rudimentary or foliaceous; floral bracts toothed; pistillate flowering branchlets 3-14 mm; stipes 1.4-2.8 mm; west of 102d meridian.   3 Salix laevigata
+ Largest medial blades: margins serrate or serrulate; stipules of late leaves foliaceous; floral bracts entire or erose; pistillate flowering branchlets 3-35 mm; stipes 1.3-5.3 mm; east of 102d meridian.   4 Salix caroliniana

Lower Taxa


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