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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 7

1. Salicaceae Mirbel

George W. Argus, James E. Eckenwalder, Robert W. Kiger

Shrubs or trees, heterophyllous or not, sometimes clonal, forming clones by root shoots, rhizomes, layering, or stem fragmentation; glabrous or glabrescent to pubescent; branching monopodial or sympodial. Stems erect to pendent; branched. Leaves persistent, deciduous or marcescent, alternate (opposite or subopposite in Salix purpurea), spirally arranged, simple; stipules present or not; petiole present; blade margins toothed or entire, sometimes glandular. Peduncles present or absent. Inflorescences racemose or spicate, usually catkins, unbranched, sometimes fasciculate or racemelike cymes, flowering before or as leaves emerge or year-round; floral bract (1) subtending each flower, displaced onto pedicel or distinct, scalelike, apex entire, toothed, or laciniate; bract subtending pistillate flower deciduous or persistent. Pedicels present or absent. Flowers usually unisexual, sometimes bisexual, usually staminate and pistillate on different plants; sepals present or absent, or perianth modified into 1 or 2 nectaries, or a non-nectariferous disc; stamens 1-60(-70); filaments distinct or connate basally, slender; anthers longitudinally dehiscent; ovary 1, 2-7[-10]-carpellate, 1-7[-10]-locular; placentation usually parietal, sometimes axile on intruded, fused placentae; ovules 1-25 per ovary; style 1 per carpel, distinct or connate; stigmas 2-4, truncate, notched-capitate, or 2- or 3-lobed. Fruits capsular, baccate, or drupaceous. Seeds sometimes surrounded by arillate coma of relatively long, silky hairs; endosperm scant or absent.

Genera 50+, species ca. 1000 (4 genera, 123 species in the flora): nearly worldwide.

SELECTED REFERENCES Fisher, M. J. 1928. The morphology and anatomy of the flowers of the Salicaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 15: 307-326, 372-395. Floderus, B. G. O. 1923. Om Grönlands salices. (On the Salicaceae of Greenland.) Meddel. Grønland 63: 61-204. Judd, W. S. 1997b. The Flacourtiaceae in the southeastern United States. Harvard Pap. Bot. 10: 65-79. Leskinen, E. and C. Alström-Rapaport. 1999. Molecular phylogeny of Salicaceae and closely related Flacourtiaceae: Evidence from 5.8 S, ITS 1 and ITS 2 of the rDNA. Pl. Syst. Evol. 215: 209-227.

1 Flowers in catkins; sepals absent; fruits capsules   (2)
+ Flowers not in catkins; sepals present; fruits drupes or berries   (3)
2 (1) Buds 3-10-scaled (usually resinous); leaf blades usually less than 2 times as long as wide, venation ± palmate (basal secondary veins strong, paired, except in Populus angustifolia); stipules caducous; catkins pendulous, sessile; floral bracts: apex deeply or shallowly cut, pistillate floral bracts deciduous after flowering; flowers without nectaries (with a non-glandular, cup- or saucer-like disc); stamens 6-60(-70); stigmas 2-4; capsules 2-4-valved, narrowly ovoid to spherical.   1 Populus, p. 5
+ Buds 1-scaled (oily in Salix barrattiana); leaf blades often more than 2 times as long as wide, venation usually pinnate; stipules persistent or absent; catkins erect, spreading, or ± pendulous, sessile or terminating flowering branchlets; floral bracts: apex entire, erose, 2-fid, or irregularly toothed, pistillate floral bracts persistent or deciduous after flowering; flowers: perianth reduced to adaxial nectary (rarely also with abaxial nectary, then distinct or connate into shallow cup); stamens 1, 2, or 3-10; stigmas 2; capsules 2-valved, obclavate to ovoid or ellipsoid.   2 Salix, p. 23
3 (1) Flowers in racemelike cymes or solitary; fruits drupes, 18-25 mm..   3 Flacourtia, p. 163
+ Flowers in fascicles; fruits berries, 4-7 mm.   4 Xylosma, p. 163

  • List of lower taxa


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